Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Micro controllers. Lecture Notes. Overview of 16 bit microcontroller. Features. • Byte Register File. An Intel P The Intel MCS is a family of microcontrollers (MCU) commonly used in embedded systems. Microcontrollers Overview – Learn Microprocessor in simple and easy steps starting from basic to advanced For example, Intel is a bit microcontroller.

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Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed. WordPress Embed Customize Embed. Presentation Description Introduction to Microcontrollers. D Department of Electronics. This is a high performance 16 bit microcontroller with register to register architecture.

Microcontrollers Overview

Hence it is used in 3 phase large horse power AC motors and robotics The bit ADC option makes it most suitable candidate for data acquisition systems and closed loop analog controllers. The has an internal 8-bit address bus and can access 2 8 addresses.

The performs most of the calculations in RALU. All registers are microcontrolelr bit or 17 bit wide. A separate incrementor is used for the Program Counter.

The addressable memory space on the is 64 kBmost of which are available to the user for program or data memory. All microconyroller locations can be used either for program or for data storage or for memory mapped peripherals. Memory Mapping PowerPoint Presentation: Any of the locations in microcontfoller register file can be used for sources or destinations for most of the instructions. Hence this is called a register to register architecture.

Many of the instructions can also use bytes or words from anywhere in the 64K byte address space as operands. The remaining bytes of the register file serves as general purpose RAM ,accessible as bytes,words or double-words.

The Watchdog Timer is an internal timer which can be used to reset the system if the software fails to operate properly. The serial port has several modes and its own baud rate generator. True digital to analog converters are difficult to make on a microcontroller because microcontrolle all of microccontroller digital noise and the necessity of providing an on chip, relatively high current, rail to rail driver.

They also take up a fair amount of silicon area which can be better used for other features.

The A to D converter does use a D to A, but the currents involved are very small. The PWM signal is a variable duty cycle, fixed frequency waveform that can be microcontrolker to provide an approximation to an analog output. The frequency is fixed at a period of 64 microseconds for a 12 MHz clock speed. PORT 1 This is a quasi bidirectional port which can be used either as input or as the out port.

It is mapped It is mapped at the memory address 0FH. If any of the port 1 pin is to be used as input port the corresponding pin must be made high by writing the data 1 PowerPoint Presentation: The weak internal pullup is designed to be overridden by the external device which drives the micdocontroller.


Both of them have open drain outputs. By writing 1 to any line it can be used as an input and other lines can serve as output lines. Contd … PowerPoint Presentation: Each output line require a pullup resistor of about 15K. In the expansion mode ,the bus lines can gain the ability to drive both high and low ,forming the expansion bus without the need of pullup resistors.

The reset pin is a bidirectional line with a strong internal pullup. T his line may also be driven by internal watchdog timer also.

The INTEL microcontroller is provided with on chip self protection circuitaryto protect the chip from large currents. The chip is automatically reset when the Vdd deviates from the prescribed levels.

Intel MCS-96

Diode circuits are provided on the chip itself ,which gives self protection. It can monitor four independently configurable HSI lines and capture the value of Microcontrller 1 when an event takes place. There are 4 lines HIS. The HIS unit can store upto 8 entries Timer 1 values.

This CAM file stores up to 8 commands. Each command specifies the action time,the nature of the action ,whether an interrupt is to occur and whether Timer 1 or Timer 2 is the reference Timer. When Timer 1 is over flown ,the interrupt bit is enabled or disabled Contd TIMER 2 can be used as a bit even counter which is clocked by a signal coming into the chip on either of the two pinsPort2. This bit WDT is a counter which is incremented every state time. This counter is cleared by program after periodic interval and not allowed to overflow.

Howeverif the program does not progress properly by any reason such as Electrostatic Discharge ESD or due to any hardware related problems ,the overflow occurs. And the hardware reset is initiated to restart the microcontroller Contd……: The 20 sources vector through 8 locations or interrupt vectors.

All these interrupts are enabled or disabled using the 9 th bit of PSW register. If this bit is set to 1 all the interrupts are enabled and disabled when reset to zero. The content of the interrupt mask register determine whether the pending interrupt is serviced or not. If it is to be serviced ,the CPU pushes the contents of the program counter on to the stack and and reloads it with the vector corresponding to the desired interrupt.

Contd … When the hardware detects one of the 8 interruptsit sets the corresponding bit in the interrupt pending register.

This register can be read or modified as a byte register. Individual interrupts can be enabled or disabled by setting or clearing the bits in the Interrupt mask register. The serial port is similar to that on the controller. It has one synchronous and three asynchronous modes. In the asynchronous modes baud rates of up to Contd … The chip has a baud rate generator which is independent of Timer 1 and Timer 2, so using the serial port does not take away any of the HSI, HSO or timer flexibility or functionality.


The serial port is configured in four modes. The four modes of the serial port are referred to as modes 0, 1, 2 and 3. Mode 1 is the standard asynchronous mode, 8 bits plus a stop and start bit are sent or received. Modes 2 and 3 handle 9 bits plus a stop and start bit. The difference between the two is, that in Mode 2 the serial port interrupt will not be activated unless the ninth data bit is a one; in Mode 3 the interrupt is activated whenever a byte is received. These two modes are commonly used for interprocessor communication Contd…: Contd … Baud rates for all of the modes are controlled through the Baud Rate register.

This is a byte wide register which is loaded sequentially with two bytes, and internally stores the value as a word. The least significant byte is loaded to the register followed by the most significant.

Intel MCS – Wikipedia

The most significant bit of the baud value determines the clock source for the baud rate generator. They are Immediate addressing mode Register direct addressing mode Indirect addressing mode Indirect with auto increment mode Short indexed mode and Long indexed mode Contd…: Contd … These addressing modes increase the flexibility and overall execution speed of controller.

Each instruction uses at least one of the addressing modes. The register ,direct and immediate addressing modes execute faster than the other addressing modes. Both of the indirect addressing modes use the value in a word register as the address of the operand.

Microcontrollers – Overview

The indirect auto increment mode ,increments a word address by one after a byte operation and two after a word operation. The conversions are done using the successive approximation method, and require state times 42 microseconds with a 12 MHz clock. Upon the completion of each conversion the converter can generate a conversion complete interrupt.

Design with Microcontrollers —John. Graw -hill International Ed. Upload from Desktop Single File Upload. The presentation is successfully added In Your Favorites. The block diagram is shown in the next slide.

If any of the port 1 pin is to be used as input port the corresponding pin must be made high by writing the data 1. When Timer 1 is over flown ,the interrupt bit is enabled or disabled. And the hardware reset is initiated to restart the microcontroller. These two modes are commonly used for interprocessor communication. They microcontrloler Immediate addressing mode Register direct addressing mode Indirect addressing mode Indirect with auto increment mode Short indexed mode and Long indexed 809.

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