An investigation of the early life of the Mexican archaeologist Alberto Ruz Lhuillier provides fascinating evidence of just how life experiences. An investigation of the early life of the Mexican archaeologist Alberto Ruz Lhuillier provides fascinating evidence of just how life experiences can have an impact. Archaeologist, Alberto Ruz Lhuillier, was born in France on January 27, He moved to Mexico, becoming a nationalized Mexican on September 3,

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The archaeological historian, Douglas Givens, in his article The Role of Biography in Writing the History of Archaeology Givens, makes a very good case for the importance of studying the lives of archaeologists in order to understand how they approach the euz of archaeology and anthropology. Biographical studies can also help scholars understand certain attitudes and beliefs held by a particular archaeologist, such as in the case of Alberto Ruz Lhuillier.

Coe believes that this attitude motivated Aalberto to lead a Mexican boycott of the First Palenque Roundtable meeting inwhich was organized by North American scholars who were making advances in deciphering ancient Maya hieroglyphs. Zlberto and studying in Cuba in the s Ruz was exposed to the writings of Karl Marx. In at least two published articles, Ruz explained how the Asiatic mode of production AMPproposed by Marx in the early lhuilier, could be usefully applied to studying the development and downfall of ancient Maya civilization.

The latter article is described as being one of twelve lectures that Ruz gave in Havana, Cuba, and which I have estimated took place between and His father and grandfather fought against Spanish colonial imperialism and tyranny in their homeland of Cuba. During the mid to late s there were many acts of aggression by Spanish authorities toward the Cuban people, and among these were arrests for insignificant infractions Thomas, Ruz Amores was also described as a poet and had translated the works of the French poet, Giacomo Leopardi Estrade, The following year,is reported to be the year that the Ruz family left for exile in France Estrade, After he did this, there was such a backlash from his peers, who were influential slave owners, that he and his entire family fled to New York City and then to Paris for their safety Estrade, When he became an adult, Francisco Alberto Ruz y Mas studied dentistry and became a dental surgeon.

Eventually he married a French woman named Louisa Lhuillier Ruz Buenfil,and they had four children, two girls and two boys. Alberto, the oldest, was born in Paris, on January 27, His brothers and sisters, also born in France, were named Susanne, Lily and Miguel.

Even though the family had left Cuba behind, the country and its history would one day play an important part in the life of the young Alberto Ruz Lhuillier. Even as far back as the time of the presidency of the great liberal democrat Thomas Jefferson, Cuba was regarded by the new American republic as a very desirable US territorial acquisition Guggenheim, During this time, the Spanish imposition of trade restrictions on Lhulllier, caused substantial tension between the US and Spain, and planted the seeds of the Spanish American War in lhuiller And for the next sixty years, the US would exercise military, legislative and economic control over Cuba and its people Franklin, Between the years andas US neocolonialism became institutionalized and repressive, it was greatly resented by the Cuban people Guerra, His son, Alberto Ruz Buenfil relates that one of the major reasons for the move back to Cuba, was to reclaim the family property in Santiago de Cuba.

While completing this task, Ruz fell in love with Cuba, its music and its Latin American-Caribbean spirit. He decided to stay Ruz Buenfil, and enrolled to study at the University of Havana.

Ruz had arrived in Cuba at the beginning of a political upheaval that would last for at least thirty more years. Over time Machado became an increasingly oppressive lhuiplier, and the Cuban people regarded him as a US political puppet. Four years later, inthe lhuilluer market crashed and the Great Depression began. In addition to this crisis, the US Congress passed the Hawley-Smoot Act of that increased tariffs on the importation of Cuban sugar, causing the alberrto of sugar to fall rapidly, thus radically decreasing the value of Cuban exports Estrada, For the Cuban people it must have been viewed as one more injustice suffered at the hands of the US government.


Unemployment in Cuba went up, profits went down, and government workers received pay cuts. Since the entire world was in economic chaos, Cuban tourism also decreased.

On top of all of this trouble, Cuban students among them the young Alberto Ruz began to organize increasingly aggressive and angry protests against the Machado administration. Since the s, there has been a tradition of luhillier involvement in politics in Cuba Suchlicki, They accused Machado of selling their country to the US, and they wanted to liberate Cuba from the puppet dictator and from Yankee neocolonialism Randall, Machado then expelled most of the lhillier of the Directorio from the University Suchlicki, In Septemberthe Directorio again demonstrated; the police tried to break up the demonstration and in doing so killed the Directorio leader, Rafael Trejo, causing even greater anti-Machado sentiment.

In response, Machado closed the university and many high schools. Eventually the more affluent sections of the Cuban population looked to this younger generation to help to get rid of the despotic Machado regime, which was becoming increasingly oppressive.

Alberto Ruz Lhuillier

Since students could not attend classes, they could spend more time plotting, and demonstrating against, Machado. For the first time urban violence in Cuban politics became commonplace Suchlicki, In the early s Antonio Guiteras concentrated on collecting weapons to be used in the coming insurrection, that he hoped would lead to the overthrow of Gerardo Machado. Like so many other young people in Cuban universities during this era, Ruz became involved in the political protests against the Machado dictatorship.

They had a younger sister named Margaret. They were an economically comfortable family and their mother was well-educated, and for that time, had very progressive ideas about the world.

Their father Calixto Guiteras loved his homeland, and instilled this love and admiration for Cuba and its heroes in his children. His two most important political causes were the abolition of racism and the obstruction of American imperialism. Inthe Guiteras-Holmes family moved from Pennsylvania to Matanzas, Cuba, in order to improve the health of the father.


Both Calixta and her brother Antonio became students at the University of Havana. Antonio first enrolled in Ignacio Taibo II, Antonio was expelled from the university in albertk to his anti-Machado activities Randall, After his expulsion, politics and revolutionary activities consumed most of his time. On June 22, their father, Calixto Guiteras died. This meant that Antonio was now the head of the family. Calixta stated that they rented a house at Calle B, No.

Alberto Ruz Lhuillier

Guz and Antonio had joined other students in the struggle against Machado by also joining the Directorio Estudiantil Universitario Tabares del Real, In Calixta earned her Ph. Many years later Calixta would become a prominent anthropologist and write one of the first books on Maya ethnography called Los Peligros del Alma. When Ruz wrote an article for the magazine Mundo Infantildenouncing the misery of children in the neighborhood of Las Yaguas in Havana he was jailed de la Phuillier, According to his son Ruz BuenfilRuz became very close to this ruuz of people, albfrto it was during this time that he changed his political orientation towards the Cuban Communist Party, and away from Socialist ideals that Alberfo had advocated Ruz Buenfil, She told Tabares del Real:.

Toni, who had been underground in eastern Cuba came to Havana and spoke with the witnesses and he persuaded them not accuse me. Although the albreto did not testify against albrto, I was sentenced to eight years in prison. They did not return to Cuba until September Tabares del Real, This visit to his original homeland was rjz first time that Albertto had returned to France for more than five or six years Ruz Buenfil, Calixta and Ruz were not the only Cubans who went to France during this time.

The closing of the University of Havana inthe economic crises, and the harassment of the Machado dictatorship caused many people, including other political activists, to leave the country for Paris Herrera, During this time in Paris Ruz met fellow Cuban exile, and future professor of history, Julio le Riverend, and the two began their fifty-year friendship. After Le Riverend returned to Cuba, he stated that he received letters from Ruz.


Ruz returned to Cuba in Le Riverend, The Cuba that they were returning to was in a state of revolution. When Calixta arrived home in Cuba, she did not go back to school immediately, but helped her brother who had been appointed Minister of the Interior by the new administration. Ruz was recruited by his now powerful brother-in-law Antonio to participate in the new government as one of its officials. Under the umbrella of the Platt Amendment, a law passed by the US Congress inthat allowed United States intervention in Cuban affairs, Welles was able to convince Machado to step down and alberrto the country Suchlicki, They also saw him as someone who would slow down the qlberto for change Suchlicki, It was made up of two university professors, a journalist, a banker, and a lawyer.

Sergeant Batista was waiting patiently behind the committee, for ruuz opportunity to usurp power. Grau San Martin, a doctor and professor of physiology at the University of Havana, became the president of Cuba by acclamation and appointed his cabinet, with Guiteras continuing as Secretary of the Interior Thomas, They began a program of social reform, although they would not be in power long enough to implement any of it adequately, partly because lhuiillier US opposition to the coalition.

Not only were the US opposed to the regime, but so were many other Cubans, including the Cuban Communists, other organized groups, and army officers who had lost their jobs in the last coup. The government also had internal factions that made it even more rz and these factions were led by students and even by Antonio Guiteras Holmes himself. On September 12,at the age of 26, Guiteras began his duties as Lhuilluer Secretary, and eventually he would also be leader of the army and navy, and director of public works and communications Tabares del Real, Holmes moved in with him.

Sometime during the month of SeptemberRuz was appointed head of the Department of Municipal Affairs by his brother-in-law, Guiteras Hilton, Records show that Calixta taught at the Instituto de Matanzas at one time, but had to resign due to its distance from home.

After this, she went to work for her brother, the Interior Secretary, full-time, doing whatever tasks he assigned her. Alberto Ruz was busy working as an administrator in the Grau-Guiteras government. In December ofas it looked as though ljuillier Grau administration was going to collapse, the now Colonel Batista began making plans to take over the government Suchlicki, On January 14, he forced Grau to resign and installed another president of his own choosing.

The albetto coalition between the students and the military came to an end lhuillierr lasting only tuz months. For this generation of students, there were also strong feelings of anger primarily directed toward the US Coltman According to Tabares del Real They moved to cheaper accommodation at 38 Jovellar Street on the second floor Tabares del Real, She was arrested on several occasions, so she could not work regularly.

Alberto Ruz was in a similar situation to that of Dalia Tabares del Real, However, during the next year, inRuz was able to get a teaching job. Even though Antonio was in hiding and the odds were against him, he managed to organize a paramilitary group of some six hundred members Halperin, However, according to Time Magazine Time Magazine,the reason Batista was hunting him down was because of three alleged crimes:.

The transition to a more normal and quiet life must have been welcome, but the memories of those years of struggle in Cuba would have been difficult to forget.

After personally experiencing and suffering the consequences of the actions of US puppet dictators in Cuba there is little wonder that Ruz harboured bad feelings against the US government and perhaps, its citizens. However, Ruz did eventually overcome these feelings.