Obraz dysku CD dołączanego do książki Anatomia PC wydawnictwa Helion ( autor: Piotr Metzger). Wydanie z roku This is an image of a. Anatomia PC: architektura komputerów zgodnych by Piotr Metzger zgodnych z IBM PC: kompendium: wiedza o architekturze komputerów PC w pigułce. Metzger P.: Anatomia PC. Wyd. XI, Helion, Gliwice 2. Komorowski W.: Krótki kurs architektury i organizacji komputerów, Mikom, Warszawa 3.

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PC and compatibles – General information. What to do if battery is leaking? Battery anatomi weak, but there is no visible battery 3. What can be installed in an empty socket near CPU? How to enter Setup?

Common memory and cache types 6. Testing memory in old PC 7. Floppy disks and drives 8. Recovering from floppy disks 9. Recording floppy disks meetzger images What slots can be found in the mainboard? What expansion cards antomia I need for Help with configuration Hard disk types in PCs When hard disk’s capacity is not fully visible Serial and parallel data transfer cables Transferring data from an old PC Formatting a hard disk Transferring programs to PC Essential software for old PC Year problem Diacritized characters in DOS Further reading, software archives.

Later they made anattomia, a with some minor enhancements and lack of tape recorder port. In general, nearly all and are XTs. Sometimes a special software is used.

PC – General information – MCbx

There is another thing you can easily identify XT: Some of them usually higher class clones ,etzger lots of ROM sockets. AT had fast, 6MHz Intel processor and could run in cp mode. They had bit ISA slots “wide” ones and could support more devices. These non-standard computers were used mostly as machine control or measurement devices. Generally this architecture was not compatible with AT, used special hard disk interface and was based on MCA proprietary bus.

Because every expansion manufacturer had to buy MCA specification to make expansions and IBM had to accept the expansionit was not popular. Anatojia Pentium mainboards and later computers may be ATX. This is metzgerr exactly a computer standard, but casing and power standard.

ATX mainboards have many ports and casing has a space for proper rear bracket. There are also two non-standard ways of powering a PC: You have been warned. These batteries were usually The idea is good, but after few years these rechargeable batteries will leak. If you see white powder on battery or mainboard, the battery must be immediately replaced or it may damage the mainboard.


Mainboard is damaged by quick oxitadion of copper tracks and if it’s multilayer board it will be irreversibly destroyed! Usually the first sign is white feather-like or powder-like coating on battery and PCB nearby. When it corrodes copper, it becomes green. See the picture on the right. First, remove the battery from mainboard. You can use soldering iron or just break weakened metzgwr points.

Anatomia PC (CD) (Polish)

Next, using a small brush, clean mainboard off the white powder. Remove chips from sockets and clean under chips too. This white powder condenses from vapors, so it will go in all places. Greenish pollution is oxidixed copper.

Then you can replace the battery. It is generally too risky to install this battery, so it’s more convenient to use CR To fix this problem, just metzgger a diode the way that the battery can supply voltage, but cannot be charged. I recommend Schottky diodes such as 1N as they have lower resistance, but a small signal diode can also be used. The installation is shown below:. The chip is usually marked Dallas”GRT” or “Odin” and is significantly bigger than other chips. Usually it is trapezoedrical in shape.

You can replace or rework the chip. Generally buiying a new chip is a bit hard and expensive and you probably won’t know are you buying the chip with good or bad battery, so it’s better to open the chip, soler wires to aanatomia connectors and use external 3. You don’t need diode for it as it is not rechargeable, but it is needed to break connections to the old battery as old battery will drain new one. This operation should be performed on chip removed from mainboard, but with some practice may be done on soldered-in chips if mainboard is not densely populated.

After making the operation, it is needed to protect the area with hot melt glue or insulation tape. Now using small, needle-like file rectangular in cross-section go through the resin until you feel the metal. Stop there and using small screwdriver drill the pin around as much as you can. Using these holes you can slowly remove pin from battery’s side by prying it outwards.

After anatomis remove IC pin metzer battery, don’t solder a wire to it yet. Now using a sharp small screwdriver try to remove the battery’s pin as much as you can. Next, solder a wire and protect everything with hot-melting glue or insulation tape. But if RTC is soldered in, you have to take a bigger part of casing off. Saw from top along one of longer edges until you go to the resin and then pry off the casing.


You now have a resin in which you can carve searching for battery’s pins.

In most mainboards up toyou will find an empty socket near processor. This socket is reserved for math coprocessor, which can speed some operations up, especially in matematical or CAD software. If you want to install a math coprocessor, you have to configure the mainboard properly and install the proper coprocessor in the proper socket. You should use the coprocessor with a proper frequency, but most of them should work.

In some mainboards you can use a special Weitek coprocessor which has extended capabilities. It requires specific jumper or BIOS settings. Ctrl-Alt-Esc at startup Later Award: Del or F1 AMI: Del, F1 or F12 Phoenix: F10 when a little rectangle blinks in the corner of screen.

Special partition may be needed for Setup to run completely. This partition may be re-created using dedicated boot mstzger. F1 or F2 IBM: F1, Ins, keeping both mouse buttons presset during start-up Zenith: F3, then F1 or F2.

Try to run without keyboard, with key pressed since power on or some SIMM missing.

BIOS may take it as error condition and propose to enter setup. These SIMMs can be found in the following speeds: Usually it’s not a problem until you don’t mix them or use 50ns modules in a board which mtzger like them. Geenrally, avoid using 50ns modules it you are not sure they will go.

In most cases connection quality such combination will work properly, but inserted socket should be secured with some glue.

These converters have been made for these rare computers which can merzger single-simm operation. They don’t support EDO so avoid using them in computers better than as they may slow the system down. It is important to set the computer’s bus clock to the value lower or equal to module’s value. And now something completely different: These modules are incompatible with other DIMMs, so only Cyrix-specific mainboard can use these modules.

Some poor mainboards have a dummy cache.