Fantaisie and Variations on The Carnival of Venice (Arban, Jean-Baptiste) .. Alt ernative. Title. Composer, Arban, Jean-Baptiste. I-Catalogue NumberI-Cat. No. Beatus vir, Op (Spada, Luca) · Bombardino Chorão (Reis, Elvis Washington) · Brass Trio in La grande méthode complète de cornet (Arban, Jean-Baptiste). The euphonium is a large, conical-bore, baritone-voiced brass instrument that derives its name and tuba basse; German Baryton, Tenorbass, and Tenorbasshorn; Italian baritono, bombardino, eufonio, and flicorno basso. .. at the University of North Texas, co-editor of “Arban’s Method for Trombone and Euphonium”.
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The euphonium is a valved instrument. Nearly all current models have piston valvesthough models with rotary valves do exist. The euphonium may be played in bombarfino clef as a non- transposing instrument or in treble clef as a transposing instrument.
In British brass bands, it is typically treated as a treble-clef instrument, while in American band music, parts may be written in either treble clef or bass clef, or both. The euphonium is in the family of aeban instrumentsmore particularly low-brass instruments with many relatives. It is extremely similar to a baritone horn.
The bore size of the baritone horn is typically smaller than that of the euphonium, and the baritone is primarily cylindrical aban, whereas the euphonium is predominantly conical bore . It is controversial whether this is sufficient to make them two different instruments. In the trombone family large and small bore trombones are both called trombones, while the cylindrical trumpet and the conical flugelhorn are given different names.
As with the trumpet and flugelhorn, the two instruments are easily doubled by one player, with some modification of breath and embouchuresince the two have identical range and bombardinl identical fingering.
The American baritonefeaturing three valves on the front of the instrument and a curved, forward-pointing bell, was dominant in American school bands throughout most of the 20th century, its weight, shape, and configuration conforming to the needs of the marching band. While this instrument is a conical-cylindrical bore hybrid, somewhere between the classic baritone horn and euphonium, it was almost universally labeled a “baritone” by both band directors and composers, thus contributing to the confusion of terminology in the United States.
Along the same lines, drum and bugle corps introduced the “Bass-baritone”, and distinguished it from the baritone. Ferdinand Sommer ‘s original name for the instrument was the euphonion. Names in other languages, as included in scores, can be ambiguous as well. They include French bassesaxhorn basseand tuba basse ; German BarytonTenorbassand Tenorbasshorn ; Italian baritonobombardinoeufonioand flicorno basso.
As a baritone-voiced brass instrument, the euphonium traces its ancestry to the ophicleide and ultimately back to the serpent. The search for a satisfactory foundational wind instrument that could support massed sound above its pitch took many years. While the serpent was used for over two centuries dating back to the late Renaissanceit was notoriously difficult to control its pitch and tone quality due to its disproportionately small open finger holes.
The ophicleide, which was used in bands and orchestras for a few decades in the early to midth century, used a system of keys and was an improvement over the serpent but was still unreliable, especially in the high register.
With the invention of the piston valve system c. The euphonium is said to have been invented, as a “wide-bore, valved bugle of baritone range”, by Ferdinand Sommer of Weimar inthough Carl Moritz in and Adolphe Sax in have also been credited. While Sax’s family of saxhorns were invented at about the same time and the bass saxhorn is very similar to a euphonium, there are also differences [ citation needed ]. The “British-style” compensating euphonium was developed by David Blaikley inand has been in use in Britain with the basic construction little changed since then.
Modern day euphonium makers have been working to further enhance the construction of the euphonium. Companies such as Adams and Besson have been leading the way in perfecting the instrument.
Adams euphoniums have developed an adjustable lead pipe receiver which allows players to change the timbre of the instrument to whatever they player finds preferable. Besson has also been credited with the adjustable main tuning slide trigger, which allows players more flexibility with intonation.
It is generally orchestrated as a non-transposing instrument like the trombonewritten at concert pitch in the bass clef with higher passages arbzn the tenor clef. Treble clef euphonium parts transposing down a major ninth are included in much concert band music: Professional models have three top-action valves, played with the first three fingers of the right hand, plus a “compensating” fourth valve, generally found midway down the right side of the instrument, played with the left index finger; such an instrument is shown at the top of this page.
Beginner models often have only the three top-action valves, while some intermediate “student” models may have a fourth top-action valve, played with the fourth finger of the right hand. Compensating systems are expensive to build, and there is in general a substantial difference in price between compensating and non-compensating models. For a thorough discussion of the valves and bombardini compensation system, see the article on brass instruments.
The lowest notes obtainable depend on the valve set-up of the instrument. All instruments are chromatic down to E 2but four-valved instruments extend that down to at least C 2. They are easily produced on the euphonium as compared to other brass instruments, and the extent of the range depends on the make bombardibo the instrument in exactly the same way as just described. Thus, on a compensating four-valved instrument, the bombarcino note possible is B 0sometimes called double pedal B, which is six ledger lines below the bass bombaridno.
As with the other conical-bore instruments, the cornetflugelhornhornand tubathe euphonium’s tubing excepting the tubing in the valve section, which is bombarino cylindrical gradually increases in diameter throughout its length, resulting in a softer, gentler tone compared to cylindrical-bore instruments such as the trumpettrombonesudrophoneand baritone horn. While a truly characteristic euphonium sound is rather hard to define precisely, most players would agree that an ideal sound is dark, rich, warm, and velvety, with virtually no agban to it.
This also has to do with the different models preferred by British and American players. Though the euphonium’s fingerings are no different from those of the trumpet or tuba, beginning euphoniumists will likely experience significant problems with intonation, response, and range compared to other beginning brass players [ citation needed ]. In addition, it is very difficult for students, even of high-school age, to develop the bombardno sound characteristic of the euphonium, due partly to the instrument models arbah in schools and partly to the lack of awareness of good euphonium sound models.
The compensating euphonium is common among professionals.
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It utilizes a three-plus-one-valve system with three upright valves and one side valve. The compensating valve system uses extra abran, usually coming off of the back of the three upright valves, in order to achieve proper intonation in the lower range of the instrument. Not all four-valve and three-plus-one-valve euphoniums are compensating. Only those designed with extra tubing are compensating. There were, at one time, three-valve compensating euphoniums available.
This configuration utilized extra tubing, just as the three-plus-one compensating models did, in order to bring the notes C 2 and B 1 in tune. This three-valve compensating configuration is still available in British style baritone horns, usually on professional models.
Euphonium Music Videos
A creation unique to the United States was the double-bell euphoniumfeaturing a second smaller bell in addition to the main one; the player could switch bells for certain passages or even for individual notes by use of an additional valve, operated with the left hand. Ostensibly, the smaller bell was intended to emulate the sound bbombardino a trombone it was cylindrical-bore and was possibly intended for performance situations in which trombones were not available.
The extent to which the difference in sound and timbre was apparent to the listener, however, is up for debate. Harry Whittier of the Patrick S. Wrban band introduced the instrument inand it was used widely in both school and service bands for several decades. Harold Brasch see “List of important players” below brought the British-style compensating euphonium to the United States c.
In any case, they have become rare they were last in Conn’s advertisements in the s, and King’s catalog in the s and are generally unknown to younger players. A marching version of the euphonium may be found in a marching band, though it is often replaced by its smaller, easier-to-carry cousin, the marching baritone which has a similar bell and valve configuration to a trumpet.
Marching bombardinp are used by marching bands bombardono schools, and in Drum and Bugle Corpsand some corps such as the Blue Devils and Phantom Regiment march all-euphonium sections rather than only marching Baritone or a mix of both. Depending on the manufacturer, the weight of these instruments can be straining to the average marcher and require great strength to hold during practices and performances, leading to nerve problems in the right pinky, a callus on the left hand, and possibly back and arm problems.
Another form of the marching euphonium is the convertible euphonium. Recently widely produced, the horn resembles a convertible tuba, being able to change from a concert upright to a marching forward bell on either the left or right shoulder. These are mainly produced by Jupiter or Yamaha, but other less expensive versions can be found.
Category:Scores featuring the euphonium
The five-valve euphonium noncompensating is an extremely rare variation of the euphonium manufactured in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by Britain’s Besson musical instrument company and Highams of Manchester Musical Instrument Company. Besson and Highams’s Clearbore five-valve vintage euphoniums are among the rarest bombarddino most valuable in existence. The Besson five-valve euphonium featured the standard three piston valves horizontally on top, but had an additional bpmbardino piston valves off to the side.
The standard euphonium has eight possible fingering and non-fingering positions by which sound is produced. The Besson and the Highams “clearbore” model rare fourth and fifth extra “side” valves change the possible fingering and non-fingering positions from eight to thirty-two.
The term ‘five-valve euphonium’ does not refer to variations of the double bell euphonium made by various brass instrument companies during the same time period. The euphonium has historically been exclusively a band instrument rather than an orchestra or jazz instrumentwhether of the wind or brass variety, where it is frequently featured as a solo instrument. Because of this, the euphonium has been called the “king of band instruments”, or the ” cello bomvardino the band”, because of its similarity in timbre and ensemble role to the stringed instrument.
Euphoniums typically have extremely important parts in many marches such as those by John Philip Sousaand in brass band music of the British tradition. Other ensembles including euphonium are the tuba-euphonium quartet or larger tuba-euphonium ensemble; the brass quintetwhere arvan can supply the tenor voice, bombardiino the trombone is much more common in this role; and other mixed brass ensemble.
Such ensembles are almost non-existent: Most of the United States Armed Forces service bands include bombxrdino tuba-euphonium quartet made up of players from the band that occasionally performs in its own right.
The euphonium is not traditionally an orchestral instrument and has not been common in symphony orchestras. However, there are a few works from the late Romantic period, in which composers wrote a part for tenor tubaall of which are played bombardnio the euphonium: In addition, the euphonium is sometimes used in older orchestral works as a replacement for its predecessors, such as the ophicleideor, less correctly, the bass trumpet or the Wagner tubaboth of which are significantly different instruments, and still bombarsino use today.
Finally, while the euphonium was not historically part of the standard jazz big band or combo, the instrument’s technical facility and large range make it well-suited to a bombardio solo role, and a jazz euphonium niche has been carved out over the last 40 or so years, largely starting with the pioneer Rich Matteson see “List of important players” below.
The euphonium can also double on a trombone part in a jazz combo. Jazz euphoniums are most likely to be found in tuba-euphonium groups, though modern funk or rock bands occasionally feature a brass player doubling on euphonium, and this trend is growing. Due to this bombardiho of performance opportunities, aspiring euphonium players in the United States are in a rather inconvenient position when seeking future employment.
Often, college players must either obtain a graduate degree and go on to teach at the college level, or audition for one of the major or regional military service bands. Because these bands are relatively few in number and the number of euphonium positions in the bands is small 2—4 in most service bandsjob openings do not occur very often and when they do are highly competitive; before the current slate of openings in four separate bands, the last opening for a euphonium player in an Bojbardino service band was in May A career strictly as a solo performer, unaffiliated with any university or performing ensemble, is a very rare sight, but some performers, such bbombardino Riki McDonnell, have managed to do it.
In Britain, Australia and New Zealand the strongest euphonium players are most likely to find a position in a brass bandbut even though they often play at world-class levels, bombardini members of the top brass bands are in most cases unpaid amateurs. Even The Salvation Army has strong ties to the brass band world, as this was a common and practical musical genre in the s.
Almost all brass bands in Britain perform regularly, particularly during the summer months. A large number of bands also enter contests against other brass bands of a similar standard. Each band requires two euphoniums principal and second and consequently arhan are considerable opportunities for euphonium players.
Due to limited vocational opportunities, there srban a considerable number of relatively serious, quasi-professional avocational euphonium players participating in many higher-caliber unpaid ensembles.
Unlike a generation or two ago, many colleges with music programs now offer students the opportunity to bkmbardino in euphonium. However, due to the small number of euphonium students at most schools 2—4 is common [ citation needed ]it is possible, and even likely, that boombardino will study with a professor whose major instrument is not the euphonium.
Universities will usually require professors in this situation to have a high level of proficiency on all the instruments they teach, and some of the best college euphonium studios are taught by non-euphonium players.
Nuno Carvalho – Carnival of Venice, by Arban
The euphonium world is and has become more crowded than is commonly thought, and there have been many noteworthy players throughout the instrument’s history. Traditionally, three main national schools of euphonium playing have been discernible: American, British, and Japanese. Now, euphoniumists are able to learn this specific art in many other countries around the world today.