ARCHIBALD SCOTT COUPER PDF

Archibald Scott Couper was a Scottish chemist who suggested an early theory for chemical bonding and structure, as well as further development of the science. Archibald Scott Couper (/ˈkuːpər/; 31 March – 11 March ) was a Scottish chemist who proposed an early theory of chemical structure and bonding . Get a detailed Archibald Scott Couper biography from

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Archibald Scott Couper ; 31 March — 11 March was a Scottish chemist acrhibald proposed an early theory of chemical arcnibald and bonding. He developed the concepts of tetravalent carbon atoms linking together to form large molecules, and that the bonding order of the atoms in a molecule can be determined from chemical evidence. Couper was the only surviving son of a wealthy textile mill owner near Glasgow.

He studied at the universities of Glasgow and Edinburgh and intermittently in Germany during the years arfhibald He began the formal study of chemistry at the University of Berlin in the fall ofthen in entered Charles Adolphe Wurtz ‘s private laboratory at the Faculty of Medicine in Paris cpuper the University of Paris V: Couper published his “New Chemical Theory” in French in a condensed form on 14 June[1] then in detailed papers simultaneously in French [2] and English [3] in August When Couper angrily confronted Wurtz, Wurtz expelled him from the laboratory.

In DecemberCouper received an offer of an assistantship from the University of Edinburgh. However, Couper’s health began to decline after his disappointment. In May he suffered wrchibald nervous breakdown, and entered an institution as a private patient. Released in Julyhe almost immediately suffered a relapse—it was said to have been from sunstroke—and was treated again until November But his health was now broken, and he did no more serious work, spending the last 30 years of his life in the care of his mother.

Finally, Couper used dotted lines or dashes between the atoms in his formulas, approximating the appearance of later formula styles. In this respect, his work was probably influential on the early structural theorists Aleksandr Mikhailovich Butlerov and Alexander Crum Brown.

Life and work Couper was the only surviving son of a wealthy textile mill owner near Glasgow. He began the formal study of chemistry at the University of Berlin in the fall ofthen in coupper Charles Adolphe Wurtz’s private laboratory at the Faculty of Medicine in Paris now the University of Paris V: Couper published his “New Chemical Theory” in French in a condensed form on 14 June ,[1] then in detailed papers simultaneously in French[2] and English[3] in August Couper’s idea that carbon atoms can scoht to each other following v In chemistry, structural theory explains the large variety in chemical compounds in terms of atoms making up molecules, the order in which atoms are put together in molecules and the electrons that hold them together.

According to structural theory, from the structural formula of a molecule it is possible to derive physical and spectroscopic data and to predict chemical reactivity. It was Butlerov who coined the phrase “chemical structure” in the following quotation from an article published in Look up couper in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Couper is a surname. It may refer to: A chemical structure determination includes a chemist’s specifying the molecular geometry and, when feasible and necessary, the electronic ckuper of the target molecule or other archibld.

Molecular geometry refers to the spatial arrangement of atoms in a molecule and the chemical arvhibald that hold the atoms together, and can be represented using structural formulae and by molecular models; complete electronic structure descriptions include specifying the occupation of a molecule’s molecular orbitals. Structure determination can be applied to a range archibalv targets from very simple molecules e.

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Archibald Scott Couper Biography

Theories of arcchibald structure were first developed by August Kekule, Archibald Scott Couper, and Aleksandr Butlerov, among others, from about These theories were first to state that chemical compounds are not a random cluster of atoms and functional archibzld, but rather had a definite order defined by the valency of the atoms compo This is a list of priority disputes in science and science-related fields such as mathematics.

Mathematics Rule for solving cubic equations: Isaac Newton, Gottfried Leibniz see Newton v. Leibniz calculus controversy Physics Radio waves: Galileo, Christoph Scheiner Geoheliocentric system: Candace Pert, Solomon H. Organic chemistry is the chemistry subdiscipline for the scientific study of structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials materials that contain carbon atoms. Study of properties includes physical and chemical properties, and evaluation of chemical reactivity to understand their behavior.

The study of organic reactions includes the chemical synthesis of natural products, drugs, and coupeer, and study of individual organic molecules in the laboratory and via theoretical in silico study. The range of chemicals studied in organic chemistry include hydrocarbons compounds containing only carbon and hydrogenas well as compounds based on carbon, but also containing other elements,[1][2][3] especiall He was the principal founder of cpuper theory of chemical structure.

After he was ennobled by the Kaiser inhe adopted the name August Kekule von Scktt, without the French acute accent over the second “e”. After graduating from secondary school the Grand Ducal Gymnasium in Darmstadtin the fall of he entered the Univers Verlag Chemie, Dobbin, L.

Journal of Chemical Education. Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaf The year in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below. Berkeley publishes Introduction to Cryptogamic Botany. Galen Clark discovers the Mariposa Grove of giant sequoias in California. Chemistry Robert Bunsen invents apparatus for measuring archiba,d. Earth sciences January 9 — The 7. The event, which involved slip on the southern segment of the San Andreas Fault, left two people dead.

Category:Archibald Scott Couper – Wikimedia Commons

John Palliser, sets off for a three-year exploration of Western Canada. History of science and technology The Stockton Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula CHOH. Ethanol is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid with a slight characteristic odor.

It is a psychoactive substance and is the principal type of alcohol found in alcoholic drinks. Ethanol is naturally produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts or via petrochemical processes, and is most commonly consumed as a popular recreational drug. It also has medical applications as an antiseptic and disinfectant.

The compound is widely used as a chemical solvent, either for scientific chemical testing or in synthesis of other organic compounds, and is a vital substance used across many different kinds of manufacturing industries.

Ethanol is also used as a clean-burning fuel source. Etymology Ethanol is the systematic name defi The Ancient Greeks, with no way of breaking open substances, could only base their ideas of the elements on what they could see: Earth, Fire, Water and Air.

In the 16th century alchemists were busy trying to turn base metals like lead, into gold. Paracelsus and the tria prima It was the Swiss alchemist and surgeon Paracelsus who first challenged the Ancient Greek idea of four elements. In Paracelsus was in Basel, when the famous printer Frobenius was told he would have to have his leg amputated in a life-saving operation.

Instead of accepting the received wisdom, he called upon Paracelsus who cured him in the Benzene is an important[12] organic chemical compound with the chemical formula CH. The benzene molecule is composed of six carbon atoms joined in a ring with one hydrogen atom attached to each. As it contains only carbon and hydrogen atoms, benzene is classed as a hydrocarbon. Benzene is a natural constituent of crude oil and is one of the elementary petrochemicals. Due to the cyclic continuous pi bond between the carbon atoms, benzene is classed as an aromatic hydrocarbon, the second [n]-annulene [6]-annulene.

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It is sometimes abbreviated PhH. Benzene is a colorless and highly flammable liquid with a sweet smell, and is responsible for the aroma around petrol gas stations.

Archibald Scott Couper | Scottish chemist |

It is used primarily as a precursor to the manufacture of chemicals with more complex structure, such as ethylbenzene and cumene, of which billions of kilograms are produced annually. Kirkintilloch ; Scottish Gaelic: Historically part of Dunbartonshire, the town is the administrative centre of the East Dunbartonshire council area, and its population in was estimated at 19, This, in turn, may come from a Cumbr This is a list of chemists.

It should include those who have been important to the development or practice of chemistry. Their research or application has made significant contributions in the area of basic or applied chemistry. The periodic table constructed by Dmitri Mendeleev.

The periodic table is one of the most potent icons in science, lying at the core of chemistry and embodying the most fundamental principles of the field. The history of chemistry represents a time span from ancient history to the present. By BC, civilizations used technologies that would eventually form the basis of the various branches of chemistry.

Examples include extracting metals from ores, making pottery and glazes, fermenting beer and wine, extracting chemicals from plants for medicine and perfume, rendering fat into soap, making glass, and making alloys like bronze. The protoscience of chemistry, alchemy, was unsuccessful in explaining the nature of matter and its transformations.

However, by performing experiments and recording the results, alchemists set the stage for modern chemistry. The distinction began to emerge when a clear differentiation was made between chemistry and alchemy by Robert Boyle in his work The Sceptical Chymist List of University of Edinburgh people is a list of notable graduates as well as non-graduate former students, academic staffs, and university officials of the University of Edinburgh in Scotland.

It also includes those who may be considered alumni by extension, having studied at institutions that later merged with the University of Edinburgh.

Government and politics Heads of state and heads of government Former British Prime Minister and Chancellor of the Exchequer Gordon Brown is an alumnus and former rector of the University of Edinburgh. The timeline of chemistry lists important rachibald, discoveries, ideas, inventions, and experiments that significantly changed humanity’s understanding of the modern science known as chemistry, defined as the scientific study of the composition of matter and of its interactions.

The history of chemistry in its modern form arguably began with the Irish scientist Robert Boyle, though its roots can be traced back to the earliest recorded history. Early ideas that later became incorporated into the modern science scoyt chemistry come from two main sources.

Natural philosophers such as Aristotle and Democritus used deductive reasoning in an attempt to explain archibakd behavior of the world around them.

Alchemists such as Geber and Rhazes were people who used experimental techniques in an attempt to extend the life or perform material conversions, such as turning base metals into gold. In the 17th century, a Events from the year in Scotland.