Bronisław Ferdynand Trentowski (21 January in Opole – 16 June ) Chowanna, czyli system pedagogiki narodowej (Chowanna, or the System of. The journal entitled “Chowanna” is an interdisciplinary forum for exchanging Ferdynand Trentowski – Chowanna czyli system pedagogiki narodowej, jako. Trentowski, Bronisław Ferdynand Overview .. Audience level: ( from for Chowanna c to for Trentowski ) WorldCat Identities.

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In his youth, he taught school in Podlasiethen fought as an ulan in the Polish November —31 Uprising. After the uprising’s suppression, he emigrated to Germany, eventually settling at Freiburg in Baden.

He developed an interest in philosophy, became an assistant professor at Freiburg University and remained there to the end of his life. Trentowski preached the concept of a “national philosophy,” i.

Based on his philosophy, he created a pedagogical system that was intended to revive the Polish nation through education and an upbringing in a spirit of patriotism a program of “national pedagogy “.

He had the same speculative mentality; the same maximalist aspirations in philosophy and conviction that “God had destined [him] for the complete reform of learning, and through it the rebirth of society.

The chief object of his philosophy was universality, an emergence from one-sided solutions. One-sided to him were realism and idealismobjective and subjective points of viewexperience and mindempirical and metaphysical knowledge. He sought to go beyond these antitheses to a synthesis. He judged Messianism severely and rejected any connection with German philosophy; in fact, however, he was taken with German Hegelianismand in his later writings also with the Messianist national ideology, and the union of these two elements constituted the fabric of his philosophy.

Opole — Opole is a city located in southern Poland on the Oder River. With a population of approximately , it is the capital of the Opole Voivodeship and, with it long history dating back to the 9th century, Opole is considered to be one of the oldest towns in Poland. The origins of the first settlement are connected with the town being granted Magdeburg Rights in by Casimir I of Opole, the rapid development of the town was also caused by the establishment of a seat of regency in Opole in During its existence Opole belonged to Poland, Bohemia, Prussia, prior to World War II it was located in eastern Germany and was one of the largest centres of Polish minority in the entire country.

It was also the capital of the region of Upper Silesia. The National Festival of Polish Song has been held annually since and each year new regular events, fairs, shows. Opole is sometimes referred to as Polish Venice, because of its picturesque Old Town and several canals, the name Opole likely originated from the medieval Slavic term for a group of settlements. At the end of the century Silesia became part of Poland and was ruled by the Piast dynasty, from the 11thth centuries it was also a castellany.

The Duchy of Opole was temporarily reestablished inin the early 13th century, Duke Casimir I of Opole decided to move the settlement from the Pasieka Island into the right shore of the Oder river. All of the inhabitants had to be moved in order to place for the castle that was eventually built in the place of the old city.

Opole developed during the rule of duke Bolko I of Opole, in this time the castle was finally completed and new buildings, including the city walls and the Holy Cross Church, were constructed. Poland — Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country in Central Europe, situated between the Baltic Sea in the north and two mountain ranges in the south.

Bordered by Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, the total area of Poland issquare kilometres, making it the 69th largest country in the world and the 9th largest in Europe.

With a population of over The Kingdom of Poland was founded inand in it cemented a political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin. This union formed the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, Poland regained its independence in at the end of World War I, reconstituting much of its historical territory as the Second Polish Republic. More than six million Polish citizens died in the war, after the war, Polands borders were shifted westwards under the terms of the Potsdam Conference.

With the backing of the Soviet Union, a communist puppet government was formed, and after a referendum in During the Revolutions of Polands Communist government was overthrown and Poland adopted a new constitution establishing itself as a democracy, informally called the Third Polish Republic. Since the early s, when the transition to a primarily market-based economy began, Poland has achieved a high ranking on the Human Development Index.

Poland is a country, which was categorised by the World Bank as having a high-income economy. Furthermore, it is visited by approximately 16 million tourists every year, Poland is the eighth largest economy in the European Union and was the 6th fastest growing economy on the continent between and According to the Global Peace Index forPoland is ranked 19th in the list of the safest countries in the world to live in.


The origin of the name Poland derives from a West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta River basin of the historic Greater Poland region in the 8th century, the origin of the name Polanie itself derives from the western Slavic word pole. In some foreign languages such as Hungarian, Lithuanian, Persian and Turkish the exonym for Poland is Lechites, historians have postulated that throughout Late Antiquity, many distinct ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland.

The most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, the Slavic groups who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Freemasonry — The degrees of freemasonry retain the three grades of medieval craft guilds, those of Apprentice, Journeyman or fellow, and Master Mason. These are the degrees offered by Craft Freemasonry, members of these organisations are known as Freemasons or Masons.

There are additional degrees, which vary with locality and jurisdiction, the basic, local organisational unit of Freemasonry is the Lodge. There is no international, worldwide Grand Lodge that supervises all of Freemasonry, each Grand Lodge is independent, modern Freemasonry broadly consists of two main recognition groups.

Continental Freemasonry is now the term for the liberal jurisdictions who have removed some, or all. The Masonic Lodge is the organisational unit of Freemasonry. The Lodge meets regularly to conduct the formal business of any small organisation. In addition to business, the meeting may perform a ceremony to confer a Masonic degree or receive a lecture, at the conclusion of the meeting, the Lodge might adjourn for a formal dinner, or festive board, sometimes involving toasting and song.

The bulk of Masonic ritual consists of degree ceremonies, candidates for Freemasonry are progressively initiated into Freemasonry, first in the degree of Entered Apprentice.

Some time later, in a ceremony, they will be passed to the degree of Fellowcraft. In all of ceremonies, the candidate is entrusted with passwords, signs. Another ceremony is the installation of the Master and officers of the Lodge. In some jurisdictions Installed Master is valued as a separate rank, in other jurisdictions, the grade is not recognised, and no inner ceremony conveys new secrets during the installation of a new Master of the Lodge. Most Lodges have some sort of calendar, allowing Masons.

Often coupled with events is the obligation placed on every Mason to contribute to charity. This occurs at both Lodge and Grand Lodge level, Masonic charities contribute to many fields from education to disaster relief. These private local Lodges form the backbone of Freemasonry, and a Freemason will necessarily have been initiated into one of these, there also exist specialist Lodges where Masons meet to celebrate anything from sport to Masonic research.

Podlachia — Podlasie, or Podlachia is a historical region in the eastern part of Poland. There are two opinions regarding the origin of the name of the region, commonly people derive it from the Slavic word les or las meaning forest, i.

Some claim it to mean under Polish rule, though in the Middle Ages Podlachia was only partially under Polish rule, hence pod Lachem would mean near the Poles, along the border with Poland. Throughout its early history, Podlasie was inhabited by tribes of different ethnic roots.

In the 9th and 10th centuries, the area was inhabited by Lechitic tribes in the south, Baltic tribes in the north. Between the 10th and 14th centuries, the area was part of the Ruthenian trentowsii and Polish, the area became perhaps a part of the Medieval Slavic territory of Cherven Cities. In the 14th century the area was annexed by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, in Podlachia became part of the Grand Duchy, but since southwestern parts of Podlachia and since the northern part used Polish law instead of Lithuanian.

In the western part of Podlachia became part of the Duchy of Warsaw, in the 19th century the region was a stronghold of Polish resistance against Russian rule.

Bronisław Trentowski – WikiVisually

Poland regained Podlachia after restoring independence inPodlasie is the land of the confluence of cultures — mainly Polish tremtowski Belarusian — and is indicative of the ethnic territories limits. Uhlan — Uhlans were Polish light cavalry armed with lances, sabres and pistols. The title was used by lancer regiments in the Trentowki, Prussian.

Uhlans typically wore a jacket with a coloured panel at the front, a coloured sash. This cap or cavalry helmet was derived from a design of Polish cap, rtentowski more formal. Their lances usually had small, swallow-tailed flags just below the spearhead, in the Turkic Tatar language, it means, amongst other things, a brave warrior or young man.


Once the Golden Horde Tatar families had settled in Lithuania in the late 14th century, they were required to military service for the Grand Duke of Lithuania. The Poles started incorporating much of their vocabulary and many of their traditions, along with their strategy. Lithuanian Tartars, mostly Chowajna, served as part of the Royal armies during various battles of the late Middle Ages and their tasks were to conduct reconnaissance in advance of the heavier cavalry banners.

The first Uhlan regiments were created in the early 18th century in Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth in s and their speed and mobility were key to their popularity. The Uhlan regiment formed by the Kingdom of Prussia inthe regiment failed to distinguish itself favorably in the first trentowsi the Silesian Wars and was xhowanna shortly afterwards. InSaxony, engaged in a union with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

This unit became the prototype for other units of the Polish cavalry. In the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Ulans officially had the status and traditions of the winged Polish hussars passed on to them inthe Austrian empire also formed a Uhlan Regiment incomposed primarily of Poles. The uprising began on 29 November in Warsaw when the young Polish officers from the local Army of the Congress Polands military academy revolted, led by lieutenant Piotr Wysocki and they were soon joined by tentowski segments of societies of Lithuania, Belarus, and the Right-bank Ukraine.

Bronisław Trentowski

Despite trentowksi successes, the uprising was crushed by a numerically superior Imperial Russian Army under Ivan Paskevich. Tsar Nicholas I decreed that henceforth Poland was a part of Russia, with Warsaw little more than a military garrison.

After the Partitions of Poland, Poland ceased to exist as an independent political entity at the end ofhowever, the Napoleonic Wars and Polish participation in the wars against Russia and Austria resulted in the creation the Duchy of Warsaw in The Congress of Vienna brought that states existence to an end inand essentially solidified the long-term division of Poland among Russia, Prussia, United with Russia through a personal union with the Tsar trenowski King of Poland, the province could elect its own parliament and government.

The kingdom had its own courts, army and treasury, over time, however, the freedoms granted to the Kingdom were gradually taken back and the constitution was progressively ignored by the Russian authorities. Alexander I of Russia never formally crowned himself as King chowana Poland, instead, inhe appointed Grand Duke Constantine Pavlovich as de facto viceroy, disregarding the constitution. Soon after the Congress of Vienna resolutions were signed, Russia ceased to respect them, in Alexander I abandoned liberty of the press in Congress Kingdom and introduced censorship.

He abolished Polish social and patriotic organizations, the opposition of the Kaliszanie faction. Although married to a Pole, he was considered as an enemy of the Polish nation.

Also, his command over the Polish Army led to conflicts within the officer corps. These frictions led to various conspiracies throughout the country, most notably within the army, the final spark that ignited Warsaw was a Russian plan to use the Polish Army to suppress Frances July Revolution and the Belgian Revolution, in clear violation trenowski the Polish constitution. The rebels managed to enter the Belweder, but Grand Duke Constantine had escaped in womens clothing, the rebels then turned to the main city arsenal, capturing it after a brief struggle.

The following day, armed Polish civilians forced the Russian troops to north of Warsaw. This incident is called the Warsaw Uprising or the November Night.

Taken by surprise by the unfolding of events during the night of 29 November. In the south-west of the country, it straddles the Dreisam river, historically, the city has acted as rtentowski hub of the Breisgau region on the western edge of the Black Forest in the Upper Rhine Plain.

The city is known for its medieval minster and Renaissance university, as well as for its standard of living. The city is situated in the heart of the major Baden wine-growing region, according to meteorological statistics, the city is tretowski sunniest and warmest in Germany and held the all-time German temperature record of Frei means free, and Burg, like chowann modern English word borough, was used in those days for a city or town.

The German word Burg also means a town, as in Hamburg. Thus, it is likely that the name of place means a tdentowski town of free citizens. This town was located at chowanja junction of trade routes between the Mediterranean Sea and the North Sea regions, and the Rhine and Danube rivers.

Begun in the Romanesque style, it was continued and completed for the most part as a Gothic edifice, inwhen Bertold V died, then Egino V von Urach, the count of Urach assumed the title of Freiburgs count as Egino I von Freiburg.