New command-line option “-c|–check-avail” checks Galileo homepage for . Openbook conversion is now much faster because the switch to jsoup (see. Eppur si muove, as Galileo said. No matter Torrential rains turn a moor into a meadow. It would suffice to turn the Nile and make it empty into the Red Sea. Nor shall I stop long at San Miniato, with its romantic story of the conversion of to the Torre del Gallo, where ‘ the starry Galileo ‘ read the open book of heaven.

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Introduction to World History. Presses Universitaires de France,frontispiece. History is nothing but the story of this endless struggle. It has been quietly infiltrating philosophy and history. Liberty has demanded its place in society; it is time for it to claim its place in knowledge too. If this introduction achieves its aim, history will be revealed as an enduring protest, as the progressive triumph of liberty. I am only too aware of them in the way physical nature works to consume man.

I feel them even more keenly in the turmoil that this enemy world raises in me. Amid the threats and allurements with which the world besets us, who has not repudiated and denied liberty a hundred times. Eppur si muoveas Galileo said. No matter what I do, I discover there is something in me that will not yield, that will not accept the yoke of either man or nature, that submits to reason alone, to law alone, and will not make peace with fatality. May that struggle go on forever!

For it is the dignity of man and the very harmony of the world. Of the two adversaries, one never changes, the other changes and becomes stronger. Nature remains the same, while man daily gains some advantage of her. The Alps have grown no higher, while we have cut our way through the Simplon. The winds and the tides are as treacherous as ever, but the steamship plows the main with no thought of capricious winds and seas. At the point of departure, in India, in the cradle of all races and religions— the womb of the world— man is bent, prostrated beneath all-powerful nature.

Nature holds him languishing, bathed in hot, humid air heavy with the perfumes of powerful aromatics. His strength, his life, his mind succumb.

On History – 3. Introduction to World History – Open Book Publishers

Man is no stronger for being multiplied in excess and squandered, as it were, with heedless disregard: In Benares the earth yields three harvests each year. Torrential rains turn a moor into a galilfo. The reed of that land is the sixty-foot bamboo. The tree is the Indian fig, which produces a forest from a single root.

3. Introduction to World History

Under these monstrous plants, monsters ppenbook. The tiger lurks on the riverbank, stalking the hippopotamus, which it seizes in a single bound of ten times six feet. A herd of wild elephants storms through the forest, toppling trees left and right. And all the while, terrifying storms remove mountains and cholera morbus mows down millions. He drinks and drinks again from the intoxicating chalice that Siva fills to the brim with life and death; he drinks deep draughts of it, plunges into it, loses himself in it, abandons his being to it, and confesses, in transports of somber desperation, that God is all and all is God, that he himself is but an accident, a fleeting emanation of that unique substance.

Or else, by means of a proud and patient immobility, he denies the existence of that hostile nature and avenges himself by logic on the reality that obliterates him. The land, arid on the surface, conceals in its bosom a thousand bubbling springs that seem to cry out for agricultural activity.


Liberty awakens here and makes its gaoileo known by a hatred of the previous state: Thus the iconoclastic genius of the heroic peoples presents itself at its wellspring. A multifarious divinity that prostituted spirit to matter in a confusion of infinite forms, the impious sanctity of a god-world, is succeeded by a dualism of light—pure, intelligent light and unclean, corporeal light.

The former must prevail and its victory is the designated end for man and for the world. Since religion addresses itself fo the interior man, the priesthood appears galieo to show its powerlessness.

Every year fonvert adherents of openbok celebrate the massacre of the magi. Here we no longer find the passivity of the Indian, who can avenge his oppression only by killing himself before the very eyes of his oppressor.

Here religion chooses its gods from a less material nature, but still from nature.

Azerbaidjan go the land of fire. The fecund and homicidal heat of the Caspian shores reminds us of India, which we thought we had escaped. A sense of universal instability gives the Persian an indifference that hampers xonvert natural activity.

Persia is the great highway of human kind; the Tartars on one side, the Arabs on the other, all the peoples of Asia have stopped, each in turn, in this caravanserai. Thus the men of this land have hardly troubled to erect any solid structures.

In modern Isfahan, as in ancient Babylon, one builds with mud brick. The houses are lightly constructed kiosks, elegant pavilions, forms of openbolk raised in transit.

One does not even save food for the morrow; what remains at evening is given to the poor. Thus human activity, at its first stirring, subsides again in discouragement and expires in indifference. Man seeks self-forgetfulness in intoxication. Not, as in India, in the intoxication of nature. Intoxication here is voluntary. In cold opium the Persian finds the dreams of a fantastical life and, ultimately, the repose of death. Egypt is the gift of the Nile.

This is the river that carried from Ethiopia not only men and civilization, but also earth itself. In the sixteenth century the great Albuquerque conceived a plan to destroy Egypt.

It would suffice to turn the Nile and make it empty into the Red Sea. Soon enough the sand of the desert would have buried the entire country. Anyone witnessing this precarious wonder, on which his very life depended, was already vanquished by nature. Generative power, fecundity, almighty Isis ruled his mind and kept him bent over his furrow.

Nonetheless, liberty found a way to emerge. Egypt, like India, connected it to the dogma of the immortality of the soul. Human personality, rejected by this world, seized upon the other. Sometimes, even in this life, it rose against the tyranny of the gods.

The brothers Cheops and Chephrem, who forbade sacrifices and were denounced by the priests, are thought to have been the founders of the pyramids, those tombs that were intended to eclipse all the temples. Thus the greatest monument of Egypt, that world of fatality, is the oprnbook of humanity.

It sacrificed the meat and onions of Egypt and left its fertile valley for the rocky outcroppings of Cedron and the sandy openbool of the Dead Sea. It cursed the golden calf of Egypt as Persia had shattered the idols of India. One god, one temple. Judges, then kings, take precedence over the priest. Eli and Samuel try to institute a priestly reign and fail. The leaders of the people are the strongmen who free it from the foreigner: And then, alongside the heroic genius, the priest sees human liberty raise an even more formidable enemy from within the very order of religious things: Among the Persians, nature prolonged her reign, not without struggle, within religion; among the Jews, she is dethroned.


Light itself becomes shadow at the advent of the spirit; duality gives way to unity. For this little world of unity and spirit, a tiny spot of space between the mountains and the deserts is balileo. It has been placed in the East only to condemn the East. With equal horror, it hears the lubricious chants of Astarte and the openbook of Moloch echoing over rugged Libanon.

Let the wandering horde of Araby, convdrt and lawless, come out of the south: Israel recognizes Ismael as his brother but does not extend his hand. Let the foreigner perish: She is content to keep in her tabernacle the priceless store of unity that the world will return to request of her on bended knee after it has begun, with Greece and Rome, its great work in the West.

If you openboo our little Europe with shapeless, massive Asia, how much more aptitude for movement does she not announce to the observing eye? Even in their common traits, Europe has the advantage. Both continents have three peninsulas to the south: But gloomy Asia looks ho upon the ocean, upon endlessness; openbookk seems to be expecting of the South Pole a continent that does not yet exist.

The peninsulas that Europe projects to the south are arms extended toward Africa, while to the north she girds her loins, like a mighty athlete, with Scandinavia and England. Her head belongs to France and her feet plunge down into the fecund barbarism of Asia.

Note the powerful sinews on this marvelous body, extending from the Alps to the Pyrenees, and to the Carpathians and the Haimos, and the imperceptible marvel that is Greece in all the jostling variety of her convery and torrents, opengook capes and gulfs, in the multiplicity of opennook curves and angles, so vividly and cleverly set off. Consider her against the motionless straight line of unvarying Egypt: In the stern world of the West, nature gives nothing spontaneously; she imposes the exercise of liberty as ineluctable law.

Therefore it was necessary to close ranks against the enemy and form the tight association that is the city. It set itself up in an eternal war against whatever persisted of the natural life of the eastern tribe. The form in which the Pelasgians had perpetuated Asia in Europe was obliterated by Athens and by Rome. In fonvert contest the ot great moments of Greece define themselves: But she masters Asia even better within herself and within the very walls of the city. She masters Asia when, with polygamy, she represses the sensuality of nature, which tk maintained itself even in Judea, and declares woman to be the helpmate of man.

She masters Asia when she reduces its gigantic idols to human scale and in so doing renders them capable of beauty and perfection. The gods reluctantly let themselves be drawn out of the gloomy sanctuary of India and of Egypt, to live in the light of day and on the public square.