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Environmental Protection Agency Washington, D. Continuous Processes 3. To implement the Act, EPA is to issue effluent limitations guidelines, pretreatment standards and new source performance standards for industrial dischargers.
BPT effluent limitations guidelines are generally based on the average of the best existing performance by plants of various sizes, ages, and unit processes within the category or subcategory for control of pollutants. In establishing BPT effluent limitations guidelines, EPA considers the total cost of achieving effluent reductions in relation to the effluent reduction benefits, the age of equipment and facilities involved, the processes employed, process changes required, engineering aspects of the control technologies, non-water quality environmental impacts including energy requirements and other factors as the EPA Administrator deems appropriate Section b l B of the Act.
The Agency considers the category or subcategory-wide cost of applying the technology in relation to the effluent reduction benefits. Where existing performance is uniformly inadequate, BPT may be transferred from a different subcategory or category. The Act establishes BAT as the principal national means of controlling the direct discharge of priority pollutants and nonconventional pollutants to navigable waters.
The factors considered in assessing BAT include the age of equipment and facilities involved, the process employed, potential process changes, and non-water quality environmental Impacts including energy requirements, Section b 2 B. The Agency retains considerable discretion In assigning the weight to be accorded these factors. BAT may Include process changes or internal controls, even when these technologies are not common industry practice. The Amendments added Section b 2 E to the Act establishing BCT for discharges of conventional pollutants from existing industrial point sources.
Section a 4 designated the following as conventional pollutants: Biochemical oxygen demanding pollutants BODtotal suspended solids TSSfecal coliform, pH, and any additional pollutants defined by the Administrator as conventional.
The Administrator designated oil and grease as an additional conventional pollutant on July 30, 44 FR In addition to other factors specified in Section b 4 Bthe Act requires that BCT limitations be established in light of a two part “cost-reasonableness” test.
NSPS are based on the best available demonstrated treatment technology. New plants have the opportunity to install the best and most efficient production processes and wastewater treatment technologies.
As a result, NSPS should represent the most stringent numerical values attainable through the application of the best available control technology for all pollutants i. In establishing NSPS, EPA is directed to take into consideration the cost of achieving the effluent reduction and any non-water quality environmental impacts and energy requirements. The legislative history of the Act indicates that pretreatment standards are to be technology-based and analogous to the BAT effluent limitations guidelines for removal of toxic pollutants.
For the purpose of determining whether to promulgate national category-wide pretreatment standards, EPA generally determines that there is pass-through of a pollutant and thus a need for categorical standards if the nation-wide average percent of a pollutant removed by well-operated POTWs achieving secondary treatment is less than the percent removed by the BAT model treatment system.
The General Pretreatment Regulations, which set forth the framework for the implementation of categorical pretreatment standards, are found at 40 CFR Part Darasheet regulations contain a definition of pass- through that addresses localized rather than national instances of pass- through and does not use the percent removal comparison test described above.
See 52 FRJanuary 14, On January 2,EPA published an Effluent Guidelines Plan 55 FR 80in which schedules were established for developing new and revised effluent guidelines for several industry categories.
Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc. The plaintiffs charged that EPA’s plan did not meet the requirements of Section m. A Consent Decree in this litigation was entered by the Court on January 31, The Decree requires, among other things, that EPA propose effluent guidelines for the manufacturing subcategories of the Pesticide Chemicals category by March,and take final action by July, The Act declares that pollution should be prevented or reduced whenever feasible; pollution that cannot be prevented should be recycled or reused in an environmentally safe manner wherever feasible; pollution that cannot be recycled should be treated; and disposal or release into the environment should be chosen only as a last resort.
In addition, Rl703 set a limitation for this subcategory on dl073 pesticide discharge which was applicable to the manufacture of 49 specifically listed organic PAIs. On November 30,EPA proposed additional regulations to control the discharge of wastewater pollutants from pesticide chemical operations to navigable waters and to POTWs 47 FR In addition, the Agency proposed guidelines for test procedures to analyze the nonconventional pesticide pollutants covered by these regulations on February 10, 48 FR EPA requested comments on the data.
EPA published a second NOA of new information on January 24,which primarily made available for public-review technical and economic data which had previously been claimed confidential by industry.
The regulation also established analytical methods for 61 PAIs for which the Agency had not previously promulgated approved test procedures. Several parties filed petitions in the Court of Appeals challenging various aspects of the pesticide regulation fChemical Specialties Manufacturers Association, et datasheeh.
After a review of the database supporting the regulation the Agency found flaws in the basis for these effluent limitations guidelines and standards. Subsequently, the Agency and the parties filed a joint motion for a voluntary remand of dwtasheet regulation in the Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals.
The Court dismissed the case datadheet July 25,in sl703 to the Joint Motion. Upon consideration of the parties’ motion to modify the dismissal, on August 29,the Court modified its order to clarify the terms of the dismissal. The Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals ordered that: Although no errors were found in the analytical methods promulgated October 4,these methods were also withdrawn to allow for further testing and possible revision.
The BPT limitations that were published on April 25, and Datassheet 29, were not affected by the datasheef notice and remain in effect. Those existing regulations are not proposed to be changed in today’s notice and EPA does not request and will not evaluate public comments on them.
Manufacturers of organic pesticide chemicals; and Subcategory B: Manufacturers of metallo-organic pesticide chemicals. In addition, BCT for conventional pollutants is proposed to be set equal to BPT for the organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. For the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory, current BPT limitations require no discharge of process wastewater pollutants.
The proposed effluent limitations guidelines and standards are intended to cover discharges generated during the manufacture of PAIs from chemical reactions. These guidelines do not apply to the production of pesticide products through the physical mixing, blending, or dilution of PAIs without an intended chemical reaction except where dilution is a necessary step following chemical dl70 to stabilize the productnor do these regulations apply to packaging or repackaging of pesticide products.
These two types of operations are part of the Pesticide Chemicals Formulating and Packaging Subcategory which will be covered under a separate rulemaking el703 a later date. There are approximately pesticide active ingredients PAIs and classes of PAIs dxtasheet individual active ingredients Pyrethrin I and Pyrethrin II are counted as one PAI because they are not separated in the commerical product manufactured by separate pesticide production processes.
Of the reported manufacturing processes used to produce pesticides inwere batch dl73. A “typical” facility manufactures one active ingredient and is the only facility in the dl730 producing that PAI. Of the 90 facilities, 67 are dischargers: The remaining 23 facilities do not discharge pesticide manufacturing process wastewater: As a result of the wide variety of raw materials and processes used and of products manufactured in the pesticide chemicals manufacturing industry, a wide variety of pollutants are found in the wastewaters of this industry.
This includes conventional pollutants pH, BOD, and TSSa variety of toxic priority pollutants, and a large number of nonconventional pollutants i. The PAIs are organic and metallo-organic compounds produced by the industry for sale. Pesticide manufacturing plants use a broad range of in-plant and end-of-pipe controls and treatment techniques to control and treat the wide variety of pollutants.
The treatment technologies used include physical chemical treatment technologies to remove PAIs, followed by steam stripping to remove volatile priority pollutants, followed by biological treatment to remove non-volatile priority pollutants and other organic pollutants. More detail is provided in Section 7. These regulations do not apply to wastewaters from pesticide femulators and packagers, which will be addressed in a separate rulemaking. The organic PAI regulation also limited total pesticides in wastewaters resulting from the manufacturing of 49 specific organics PAIs.
In addition, organo-tin pesticides were not covered by BPT. Information demonstrates that all manufacturers of these PAIs are already subject to permit limitations that are at least as stringent as the BPT limitations. The existing BPT limitations i. However, only multimedia filtration was deemed a feasible option cl703 BCT. Multimedia filtration was then evaluated by the BCT cost test.
Since no other technologies were identified that would be expected to enhance conventional pollutant removal above that provided by BPT technologies, the Agency is proposing to set BCT equal to BPT limitations for conventional pollutants.
Table presents the BCT organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory effluent limitations. Limitations for PAIs were derived on a mass basis, using long-term data where available.
Where long-term data were not available, limitations were developed based on performance data from either industry or EPA treatability satasheet. In these cases, in lieu of BAT performance data from full scale operating systems, treatability studies were used to determine the PAI concentration achievable through a specific treatment technology.
In cases where treatability studies did not contain sufficient information to determine process variability, daily and monthly variability were based on the performance of operating BAT treatment systems.
For some PAIs for which there were no treatability data, limitations were developed based on the treatment performance achieved for chemically and structurally similar PAIs. This “technology transfer” was supplemented by treatability studies. BAT effluent limitations for 28 priority pollutants are proposed. For 27 of the 28 priority pollutants limitations are based on the use of model control technologies identified in the OCPSF rulemaking. Both the OCPSF end- of-pipe biological treatment subcategory and the non-end-of-pipe biological treatment subcategory limitations are being transferred for the priority pollutants regulated under BAT in the organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.
Derivation of the proposed BAT limitations is detailed in Section 7 of this document.
DL703 даташит ( Даташиты, Даташиты )
The Agency proposes to reserve BAT for the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. The limitations for pesticide chemicals manufacturing plants include all priority pollutants regulated and those PAIs manufactured at each plant. PAI dl7703 No discharge of process wastewater pollutants 2.
Discharges of lead from complexed metal-bearing process wastewater are not subject to these limitations.
The Agency proposes to reserve NSPS for the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. The proposed standards would apply to all existing indirect discharging organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing plants. EPA determines which pollutants to regulate in PSES on the basis of whether or not they pass through, cause an upset, or ddatasheet interfere with operation of a POTW including interference with sludge practices.
PAI pass-through analysis is presented in Section 7. PSES for PAIs and priority pollutants in the organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory are shown in Tables andrespectively.
The Agency proposes to reserve PSES for the metallo-organic pesticide chemical manufacturing subcategory. PSNS for PAIs and priority pollutants in the organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory are shown in Tables andrespectively.
DL Даташит ( PDF DL Datasheet )
The Agency proposes to reserve PSNS for the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. Discharges of lead and zinc from complexed metal-bearing process wastewater dl7033 not subject to these limitations. These data sources include: EPA used data from these sources to profile the industry with respect to: