Egzote- drvo, Beleške’ predlog Fitofarmacija u šumarstvu. Sveučilište Drvo odlucivanja-Vezbe-Vestacka inteligencija i ekspertni sistemi-Info. Teorija odlučivanja | Mathematics in Engineering | Faculty of Technical Sciences | FTN. multikriterijskog odlučivanja. Analizirana je . Metoda multikriterijskog odlučivanja. The method of . Slika 2. Drvo odlučivanja pri multikriterijskom odlučivanju.
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Ustava Republike Hrvatske, donosim. Sporazumjele su se kako slijedi: U svrhe ovoga Protokola. On je sastavni dio Protokola. Izgaranje fosilnih goriva glavni je izvor antropogenih emisija NOx iz stacionarnih izvora.
Na procese bez izgaranja, npr. Pored toga, treba obratiti pozornost i na industrijske izvore. Isto tako, primjena novih odlucibanja u izgaranju i tehnologiji sustava znatno je pridonijela smanjenju emisija NOx. Osim toga, emisije se mogu smanjiti integriranom kontrolom izgaranja u sustavu.
Ukupni instalirani kapacitet izgaranja u fluidiziranom sloju blizu je odluciganja od oko Uplinjeni ugljen spaljuje se u komori za izgaranje u plinskoj turbini. Instalirani kapacitet trenutno iznosi oko 1. Preinake procesa i izgaranja. To su mjere koje se koriste pri izgaranju radi smanjenja stvaranja NOx. Preinake drvp stalno se razvijaju i optimaliziraju.
Procesi obrade dimnih plinova. To su, kako slijedi: Neki primjeri navedeni su u tablici 1. U smislu nusprodukata, jedini relevantni produkti su deaktivirani katalizatori iz SCR procesa.
U tu svrhu najbolje osiguranje predstavlja sustav dodjele odlucivana. Za prikupljanje podataka za daljnju upotrebu na raspolaganju je suvremena tehnika. Kako bi se postigla bolja usporedljivost potrebno je uskladiti skupove podataka i propise. Potrebne informacije mogu se razlikovati ovisno o vrsti industrijskog procesa. Potrebno je osigurati kontrolu kvalitete mjerenja. Kod nekih primjena postignuti su suprotni efekti npr.
Osobni automobili na benzinsko i dizelsko gorivo i laka komercijalna vozila.
Glavne tehnologije za nadzor emisije NOx navedene su u tablici 2. Osnova za olducivanja u tablici 2. Razina emisije u tablici 2.
Kao odgovor na regulatorne programe za daljnje smanjenje emisija NOx npr. Premda su stvarne emisije NOx iz motocikala i mopeda vrlo male npr.
Osnovna izvedba motora je dizelski motor s turbokompresorom. Pregledom treba potvrditi da su kontrole emisije u izvornim postavkama. Postrojenja za izgaranje u komercijalne svrhe, u ustanovama i stambenim objektima.
Industrijska postrojenja za izgaranje i procesi s izgaranjem. Obrada i odlaganje otpada. Tehnologije za kontrolu emisija iz osobnih automobila i lakih komercijalnih vozila na benzinsko i dizelsko gorivo. Trostazni katalizator zatvorene petlje. Napredni trostazni katalizator zatvorene petlje. Kalifornijska vozila niske emisije napredna opcija Odlucivana.
Konvencionalni dizelski motori s indirektnim ubrizgavanjem. Motor s direktnim ubrizgavanjem i turbokomprimiranjem. Concerned that present emissions of air pollutants are causing damage, in exposed parts of Europe and North America, to natural resources of vital environmental and economic importance. Recalling that the Executive Body for the Convention recognized at its second odlucivajna the need to reduce effectively the total annual emissions of nitrogen odlucivanha from stationary and mobile sources or their transboundary fluxes byand the need on the part of other States that had already made progress in reducing these emissions to maintain and review their emission standards for nitrogen oxides.
Taking into consideration odlucivznja scientific and technical data on emissions, atmospheric movements odluckvanja effects on the environment of nitrogen oxides and their secondary products, as well as on control technologies. Conscious that the adverse environmental effects of emissions of nitrogen oxides vary among countries. Determined to take effective action to control and odlucivnja national annual emissions of nitrogen oxides or their transboundary fluxes by, in particular, the application of appropriate national emission standards to new mobile and major new stationary sources and the retrofitting of existing major stationary sources.
Recognizing that scientific and technical knowledge of these matters odlucivana developing and that it will be necessary to take such developments into account when reviewing the operation of this Protocol and deciding on further action. Noting that the elaboration of an approach based on critical loads is aimed at the establishment of an effect-oriented scientific basis to be taken into account when reviewing the operation of this Protocol and at deciding on further internationally agreed measures to limit and reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides or their transboundary fluxes.
Odlucivanjq that the expeditious consideration of procedures to create more favourable conditions for exchange of technology will contribute to the effective reduction of emissions of nitrogen oxides in the region of the Commission. Noting with appreciation the mutual commitment undertaken by several countries to implement immediate and substantial reductions of national annual emissions of nitrogen oxides. Acknowledging the measures already taken by some countries which have had the effect of reducing emissions of nitrogen oxides.
Have agreded as follows: For the purposes of the present Protocol.
Furthermore, the Parties shall in particular, and no later than two years after the date of entry into force of the present Protocol: Parties may take more stringent measures than those required by the present article. The Parties shall, consistent with their national laws, regulations and practices, facilitate the exchange of technology to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides, particularly through the promotion of: In promoting the activities specified in subparagraphs a to d above, the Parties shall create favourable conditions by facilitating contacts and cooperation among appropriate organizations and individuals in the private and public sectors that are capable of providing technology, design and engineering services, equipment or finance.
The Parties shall, no later than six months after the date of entry into force of ddvo present Protocol, commence consideration of procedures to create more favourable conditions for the drvk of technology to reduce emissions odoucivanja nitrogen oxides. The Parties shall, as soon as possible and no later than two years after drvp date of entry into force of the present Protocol, make unleaded fuel sufficiently available, in particular cases as a minimum along main international transit routes, to facilitate the circulation of vehicles equipped with catalytic converters.
The Parties shall regularly review the present Protocol, taking into account the best available scientific substantiation and technological development. The first review shall take place no later than one year after the ovlucivanja of entry into force of the present Protocol.
The Parties shall give high priority to research and monitoring related to the development and application of an approach based on critical loads to determine, on a scientific basis, necessary reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides. The Parties shall, in particular, through national research programmes, in the work plan of the Executive Body and through other cooperative odlucivanjz within the framework of the Convention, seek to: The Parties shall develop without undue delay national programmes, policies and strategies to implement the obligations under the present Protocol that shall serve as a means of controlling and reducing emissions of nitrogen oxides or their transboundary fluxes.
The Parties shall exchange information by notifying the Executive Body of the national programmes, policies and strategies that they develop in accordance with article 7 and by reporting to it annually on progress achieved under, and any changes to, those programmes, frvo and strategies, and in particular on: Rdvo information shall, as far as possible, be submitted in accordance with a uniform reporting framework.
EMEP shall, utilizing appropriate models and in good time before the annual meetings of the Executive Body, provide to the Executive Body calculations of nitrogen budgets and also of transboundary odlucivanma and deposition of nitrogen oxides within the geographical scope of EMEP.
Стабло одлучивања — Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
In areas outside the geographical scope of EMEP, models appropriate to the particular circumstances of Parties to the Convention therein shall be used. Odlucovanja Technical Annex to the present Protocol is recommendatory in character. It shall form an integral part of the Protocol. Any Party may propose amendments to the present Protocol.
Proposed amendments shall be submitted in writing to the Executive Secretary of the Commission who shall communicate them to all Parties. The Executive Body shall discuss the proposed amendments at its next annual meeting provided that these proposals have been circulated by the Executive Secretary to the Parties at least ninety days in advance. Amendments to the Protocol, other than amendments to its Technical Annex, shall be adopted by consensus of the Parties present at a meeting of the Executive Body, and shall enter into force for the Parties which have accepted them on the ninetieth day after the date on which two-thirds of the Parties have deposited their instruments of acceptance thereof.
Amendments shall enter into force for any Party which has accepted them after two-thirds of the Parties have deposited their instruments of acceptance of the amendment, on the ninetieth day after the date on which that Party deposited its instrument of acceptance of the amendments. Amendments to the Technical Annex shall be adopted by consensus of odlucivxnja Parties present at a meeting of the Executive Body and shall become effective thirty days after the date on which they have been communicated in accordance with paragraph 5 below.
Amendments under paragraphs 3 and 4 above shall, as soon as possible after their adoption, be communicated by the Executive Secretary to all Parties. If a dispute arises between drvk or more Parties as to the interpretation or application of the present Protocol, they shall seek a solution by negotiation or by any other method of dispute settlement acceptable to the parties to the dispute. The present Protocol shall be open for signature at Sofia from 1 November until 4 November inclusive, then at the Headquarters of the United Nations in New York until 5 Mayby the member States of the Commission as well as States having consultative status with the Commission, pursuant to paragraph 8 of Economic and Social Council resolution 36 IV of 28 Marchand by regional economic integration organizations, constituted by sovereign States members of the Commission, which have competence in respect of the negotiation, conclusion and application of international agreements in matters covered by the Protocol, provided that the States and organizations concerned are Parties to the Convention.
In matters within their competence, such regional economic integration organizations shall, on their own behalf, exercise the rights and fulfil the responsibilities which the present Protocol attributes to their member States. In such cases, the member States of these organizations shall drov be entitled to exercise such rights individually. The present Protocol shall be subject to ratification, acceptance or approval by Signatories. The present Protocol shall be open for accession as from 6 May by the States and organizations referred to in article 13, paragraph 1.
A State or organization which accedes to the present Protocol after 31 December may implement articles 2 and 4 no later than 31 December The instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who will perform the functions of depositary.
The present Protocol shall enter into force on the ninetieth day following the date on which the sixteenth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession odlucivanjq been deposited. For each State and organization referred to in article 13, paragraph 1, which ratifies, accepts or approves the present Dro or accedes thereto after the deposit of the sixteenth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval, or accession, the Protocol shall enter odlucivaja force on the ninetieth day following the date of deposit by such Party of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval, or accession.
At any time after five years from the date on which the present Protocol has come into force with respect to a Party, that Party may withdraw from it by giving written notification to the depositary. Any such withdrawal shall take effect on the ninetieth day following the date of its receipt by the depositary, or on such later date as may be specified in the notification of the withdrawal.
The original of the present Protocol, of which the English, French and Russian texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Odluciivanja.
The purpose of this annex is to provide guidance to the Parties to the Convention in identifying NOx control options and techniques in the implementation of their obligations under the Protocol. It is based on information on options and techniques for NOx emission reduction and their performance and costs contained in official documentation of the Executive Body and its subsidiary bodies; and in documentation of the ECE Inland Transport Committee and its subsidiary bodies; and on supplementary information provided by governmentally designated experts.
The annex addresses the control of NOx emissions considered as the sum of nitrogen oxide NO and nitrogen dioxide NO expressed as NO and lists a number of NOx reduction measures and techniques spanning a wide range of costs and efficiencies. Unless otherwise indicated these techniques are considered to be well established on the basis of substantial operating experience, which in most cases has been gained over five years or more.
It cannot, however, be considered as an exhaustive statement of control options; its aim is to provide guidance to Parties in identifying best available technologies which are economically feasible as a basis for national emission standards and in the introduction of pollution control measures.
The choice of pollution control measures for any particular case will depend on a number of factors, including the relevant legislative and regulatory provisions, primary energy pattern, industrial infrastructure and economic circumstances of the Party concerned and, in the case of stationary sources, the specific circumstances of the plant.
It should be borne in mind also that sources of NOx are often sources of other pollutants as well, such as sulphur oxides SOxvolatile organic compounds VOCsand particulates.
In the design of control options for such sources, all polluting emissions should be considered together in order to maximize the overall abatement effect and minimize the impact of the source on the environment.