María Esther Duckse ( – ) fue una actriz uruguaya que trabajó intensamente en el En cine debutó en en los filmes El conventillo de la Paloma y . El texto está disponible bajo la Licencia Creative Commons Atribución. Results 1 – 30 of 31 Paloma. by Club de Grabado de Montevideo. and a great selection EL CONVENTILLO DE LA PALOMA MOVIE POSTER/CONVENTILLO. Results 1 – 30 of Guitarra y paloma”]. Témpera firmada, rodeada por fragmentos autógrafos ALBERTI, Rafael. Used. Signed. Quantity Available: 1.

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Aunque en su trabajo utilizan estereotipos tradicionalmente “femeninos”, ellas defienden el anarquismo y abogan apasionadamente por los derechos de la mujer. Each play commented on issues relevant to women, lw undoubtedly comprised a significant portion of the new play-going public.

Despite an increased female presence in the workplace, women and feminism faced major adversities in the first cknventillo of the 20th century: In this way, social hygiene campaigns brought public awareness to formerly private female occupations, such as childrearing and care for the sick. This provided palima activists with a culturally acceptable avenue for participating in civic life and social reform; women could speak openly about public health while still conforming to their feminine roles as nurturers and ce.

In the late s, fonventillo began entering the medical field, joining public health organizations, and participating in conferences on health and hygiene — Each playwright dramatizes the suffering female body and draws parallels between physical illness and societal repression.

The constant and persistent efforts of many millions of women will be necessary to destroy the mountain of prejudices that has weighed upon humanity for centuries: Anarchists also viewed drama as an effective means of promoting social change and preferred it to lectures and other forms of public presentations, according to Juan Suriano Thesis dramatists questioned cultural norms but they also sought to win over audiences.

This often meant that playwrights, even anarchist and feminist ones, reassured their public that their reformatory ideas would not interfere with Argentine womanhood, feminine beauty, wifely devotion, and—most importantly—maternal obligations. Actresses renowned for their grace and beauty played the leading roles, such as the wildly popular Camilia Quiroga, and dramatists and theatre companies exalted femininity and assured skeptical playgoers that female emancipation would not lead to the masculinization of women.

As a first time playwright and a female author in a male-dominated genre, the pressures on Salvadora Medina Onrubia fig. That same year she wrote and debuted an impassioned defense of female laborers and an anarco-feminist analysis of capitalism: The protagonist, Elisa, lives in a conventillo tenement housing and works as a seamstress from home.

This tragic plot reflects the reality facing poor families in tenement homes, which represented about 20 percent of the population of Buenos Aires at the end of the 19th century Nari Political organizing within the tenements was suppressed by the Law of Residence and the Law of Social Defensewhich authorized police to incarcerate or deport individuals suspected of associating with anarchists Rock Unsanitary living conditions caused further difficulties for conventillo residents.

Family members often shared one room for eating, sleeping, and working. A limited number of latrines were used by multiple families and it was common to see dogs, cats, and other domestic animals in the buildings Reber Medical professionals warned of a variety of social and physical ailments caused by living in the conventillo.

Nari, prominent doctors, including the foremost public health advocate, Guillermo Rawson, accused the tenements of threatening three key components of a healthy nation: Yet women remained on the margins of this new cultural model. Female characters often appeared in sainetes 4 and tangos as disease-ridden prostitutes and wayward women Guy Perhaps this explains why Medina Onrubia does not stage the public space of the patio, in Almafuertebut rather a more private, more marginalized, space: She exposes the unsanitary working and living conditions endured by female laborers but she lays the blame for poverty and unsanitary conditions on influences from outside the conventillo.

Elisa speaks eloquently and enthusiastically in favor of anarchism as she prepares for her marriage to the union organizer, Arturo. It is possible that Medina Onrubia used these gendered details to make audiences more sympathetic toward the main character and her ideological point of view.


Meaning of “sainetista” in the Spanish dictionary

Since Medina Onrubia picked a controversial topic, she may have also been concerned with how well the public would react to a politically subversive play written by a woman. Likewise, Arturo lauds the appeal of anarchism as beneficial to women and denounces the state for regarding political activism as a disease in need of a cure:. Do you really think it is a crime, Elisa? Trying to liberate slaves, trying to eliminate pain and suffering so that women will not have to sell themselves for a piece of bread?

The police persecute Arturo for his political involvement and use the Law of Residence to force him out of the country.

Lx is just the first in a series of hardships that Elisa conventlilo her family must endure. The family convenrillo try, unsuccessfully, to support themselves on the small amount of money the women make sewing and ironing.

According to Vera Blinn Reber, some of the sanitation measures taken by government and public health organizations to combat the spread of tuberculosis in Buenos Aires may have been influenced by upper-class prejudices:. Because of the efforts of the Argentine Anti-Tuberculosis League, the Buenos Aires Municipal Government passed legislation in which emphasized preventative measures. Such measures included the disinfection of hospital clnventillo, of public places such as trams and theatres, and the homes of tubercular patients.

All public places were to have spittoons on the floor or fixed to the wall. Factory owners were to provide workers with their own drinking conventullo. Ordinances prohibited the tubercular from selling food or working in restaurants. Although it conventilllo not clear how useful these measures were in preventing tuberculosis, they did represent an elitist social agenda. And what else can you hope for?

Tres mil pesos… una hora… mira a su alrededor la horrible miseria. Three thousand pesos she laughs bitterly.

A single adult woman is her own master; her body is what most legitimately belongs to her; she can do whatever she wants with it, just like a man, without paying taxes or being bothered by the police]. Medina Onrubia inverts conventional portrayals of poor women in the conventillos by highlighting the virtuousness of her female characters and by depicting members conventjllo privileged classes doctors, landlords, high society ladies, bosses as truly immoral and even predatory.

Thus, in contrast to prevailing theatre practices and medical discourses, Medina Onrubia likens political repression, capitalism, and social prejudice to infectious diseases that corrupt the female body and weaken the integrity of the home. Although critics from the mainstream press wrote unfavorable reviews of Almafuertemany of them admitted that it was popular with audiences.

The anarchist paper, La Protestawas one of the palona major periodicals to come out in favor of Almafuertedescribing it as a condemnation of the Law of Residence. Although Medina Onrubia did not produce another play untilshe explained in an interview that this was not because of inhibitions but because she was occupied with raising her children.

Even in revolutionary circles, women stayed home and took on the majority of the work involved in childrearing, allowing their male partners more freedom to realize their political, professional, and artistic aspirations Bellucci The Pagano-Ducasse theatre company financed both productions and Angelina Pagano fig. Unlike Medina Onrubia, she had had previous experience with critics and was prepared to defend herself from their inevitable censure. She claims inexperience as a dramatic writer in her introduction to the published script.

Although she admits that her first works contained some formal defects, she lashes out at the reviewers who treated her with condescension: She claims that her intentions are to offer subtle recommendations for social change, not to overtly challenge the civil code.

Ironically, she seems to confirm the belief that women should avoid political debates, even though her play has a clearly pro-divorce and obviously political thesis:.

Her use of melodrama may be seen as an extension of this subversive strategy.

Similarly, domestic melodramas that explore gender politics and feminist ideology are much more subversive than they first appear. As Eric Bentley explains, the paradigm of good versus evil makes a great impression on the viewer of a melodrama: Me refiero a otras cosas. A las conversaciones, a los libros, a las veinte mil pamplinas que le preocupan a Vd. No habla mi mujer de otra cosa.


If she had a pair of kids to watch over, we would see how long her neurasthenia would last. And you, Jaime, are partially to blame. The conversations, the books, all of the mountains of rubbish that you pay attention to that manage to attract her attention. Francine Masiello explains that positivist male authors in the late 19 th century tended to use the rhetoric of science and social hygiene to exclude women from national discourses:.

Hygiene, public medicine, sanitation, and criminology were designed to control the national ego and produce individual subjects both clean of mind and body and free of all traces of barbarism. But science also served to articulate a fear of difference and, supported by evidence amassed from new technologies, applied gender distinctions to the new boundaries separating elite and popular culture. Thus, women were assigned a position as inferior political and civil subjects. Within this schema, women were situated in the realm of the irrational, outside the sphere of official discourse, while the state became synonymous with reason and progress.

She repeats these sentiments with more vigor to her sister, Lola, towards the end of Act One: Los tira hacia afuera. Are you going back to your bad habits? When will you learn to obey me?

Anotaciones sobre una novela de Arturo Pérez-Reverte | Archivo de etiquetas para Buenos Aires

He rips them Like this, like this, now, to the river! He throws them outside. Her husband should be enough for her]. Books make you sick]. These critics contend that a society that degrades and demoralizes women inevitably sickens its female citizens: As she elaborates on her reasons, she makes it clear that it is personal freedom that she is really seeking. Above all, she reproaches her mother for having coerced her into sacrificing her intellectual talents and her independence:. In this way, Cristina explains that her true motivation for leaving her husband is her recognition of self-worth, her desire for independence, her aversion to staying in a repressive marriage for money, and her vision of the patriarchal household as an unhealthy and dehumanizing environment.

Each man represents a different choice for the protagonist: This scenario bears striking resemblance to the earlier play by Medina Onrubia in which a young anarchist male stands for health and love while a rich doctor represents demoralization and degradation. They used high priority topics of the time, hygiene and health, to draw attention to the unequal treatment of women in the Argentine civil code.

These plays portray patriarchal culture as an epidemic that contaminates homes and makes women sick. Rather than demonizing working women and prostitutes, each playwright makes the case that mainstream culture coerces women into sexual servitude by prohibiting them from engaging in the types of activities that would better their lives, such as educating themselves or forming progressive political allegiances.

It would be several decades before more radically subversive portrayals of womanhood would appear on the Argentine stage, ones that questioned the notion that women were naturally nurturing, delicate, and naive. Nonetheless, despite concessions made to the public, these plays were progressive, innovative, and even scandalous at the time in which they were written and performed. I would like to thank the Fulbright Commission for funding my research trip to Buenos Aires.

The Instituto Nacional de Teatro which provided the images that accompany this piece and the archives at Argentores were particularly valuable resources.

Castro offers a concise definition of the Argentine sainete in an article about the works of Alberto Vacarezza: Unsigned review of Almafuerte by Salvadora Medina Onrubia.

María Esther Duckse

Connventillo of Almafuerte by Salvadora Medina Onrubia. Why Did You Marry Me? She spent most of her life in Rosario, where she established a dramatic arts school Foppa Todo es HistoriaApril.