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Log In Sign Up. Terrance M P Gdlibolulu. Malta Libraries and Heritage Malta, Includes bibliographical references and index. Knights of Malta – History 2. Malta- History – Great Siege, I. Camilleri, Maroma, II. Heritage Malta DDC Joseph Mizzi Mustwfa cover: The text recording the siege and the brief biographical note on Turgut Pasha reproduced below and translated by the authors from Osmanlija 1 I English were written in the period between andapproximately three decades after the siege took place, from information provided by participants in the siege known to the author.
This work is not an “official history”, as Gelibolulu Mustafa Ali was not an official Ottoman historian, but he obtained information mudtafa participants in the siege, moving in high Ottoman circles, at times attached to the well-connected Bosnian Vizier, Lala Mustafa Pasha 2 c.
Gelibolulu Mustafa Ali, poet, calligrapher and state official, truly a man of the pen, served in an official capacity in Ottoman: It should be noted that there are numerous Ottoman variant copies of the Kunhu’l-Ahbar, that copy which has been employed 1 Osrnanlfja was the Ottoman language written and spoken by officialdom and the elite.
The common people of the Ottoman populations spoke, but did not write, Osrnanlija, as also a whole range of other languages and dialects, depending on place of birth, from variants of Turkish and Greek, Bulgarian, Hungarian, Kurdish and Tatar, to Cherkez, Arabic and Persian etc.
Turkiye Diyanet Vakfl Yaymlan,s. Kiinhii’l-Ahbar- The Truth of Events fourth chapter ff. Concerning the translation of this text, additions to the text are alli in round brackets, an aside by Gelibolulu Mustafa Ali is given in square brackets, and the technical terminology such as rank of office, the names of types of vessels etc. Subsequently the fleet of vessels consisting ofKadzrga, Kalite, Mavna and Bastarda, were dispatched for the conquest of Malta.
However, the preparations for the campaign and siege were the responsibility of Turgut Dragut Pasha, the Beylerbey of Trablus, and Mustafa Pasha and Piyale Pasha were ordered to follow the orders that were given by Turgut Pasha, without exception.
At this time vessels from Malta were endangering Ottoman vessels travelling to and from Egypt.
Ottoman maritime travellers were without security and the enemy sailors were based there on Malta. I 11l’olher Vitzters,w1rc ‘ I.
Tl 1 people standing around geliibolulu I rht’ Vi. Even though Piyale Pasha was a very successful naval commander and Turgut Dragut Pasha, the contemporary of Barbaros Hayreddin Pasha, was a very good maritime commander, the augury of misfortune and Mustafa Pasha’s general-ship meant that the expedition would go wrong. Thus the fleet in this condition reached Malta.
On arrival Piyale Pasha and Mustafa Pasha should have waite,d for the arrival from Trablus Tripoli of Turgut Pasha, but, instead of waiting, within seven days the geliboluul were dug musttafa the bombardment was begun.
When Turgut Pasha reached Malta he found that the cannons and the entrenchments were in the wrong positions, he said the first place that should have been chosen to be bombarded was the Malta Kalesi meaning the peninsular of Birgu-St Angelo and he reproached them. Turgut Pasha said that the Masin Yermo St Elmo was of only secondary importance compared to the Malta Kalesi meaning thereby the umstafa of Birgu-St Angelo, where the capital of the Order was locatedbecause if the Malta Kalesi was taken, then the Masin Geoibolulu St Elmo would have no mustada and would carry no threat however many troops it held; however if the Masin Yermo falls, the Malta Kalesi could stand alone for years.
Balbi da Correggio records the landing of the Ottoman troops on 20 May, muustafa bombardment of St Elmo began on 27 May, the arrival of Dragut Turgut Pasha on Saturday 2June, the mortal injury of Dragut on 18 June from a stone cast up from an inaccurately aimed Ottoman cannon, and the fall of St Elmo on 23 June, with the body of Turgut Pasha taken from Malta on 25 June for burial in Tripoli.
Penguin,pp. When news of the death of Turgut Pasha reached the kafir unbelieversthe castle tower and walls were decorated as in a celebration and they shouted: Of the army, many of the troops received gifts, but those troops which were under the command of Piyale Pasha did not receive any gifts awards.
Piyale Pasha did not want to go to talk to Gelibolullu Pasha about this matter. The death of Turgut Pasha, the sour relationship between Piyale Pasha and Mustafa Pasha, the fact that most of the gunpowder and cannon balls had been expended in the siege of Masin Yermo St Elmothe lazy and motivation-less troops, the augury of evil and omen of misfortune given at the start of the expedition by the Vizierazam Grand Vizierand the forthcoming hard winter, these would make the lifting of the siege and a delay in the taking of the Island of Malta inevitable.
Rumeli, Anadolu, Karaman and the Ekrad Kurds troops embarked and left the island. With such a quantity of resources many cities and castles should have been taken, but this was not the case of Malta. It was reported that the artillerymen were sent orders not to fire their cannons and disturb the Pasha with the noise as Mustafa Pasha was sleeping well in the mornings.
Due to this order, the troops started to reproach the Pasha, and because of this order the cannons were not fired and the troops’ readiness for fighting the jihad gelobolulu lost, and there was no choice but to withdraw. Gelobolulu the morta l inju ry of’ l. MALTA and then the excuse that the fortifications were so strong, 11 and then, the death of Turgtlt Pasha for the breakdown in Ottoman morale.
It is noteworthy that Gelibolulu Mustafa Ali in this passage does not characterise this campaign as a defeat, rather as a withdrawal and an unfortunate delay in the taking of the Malta Kalesi.
Earlier a detailed account of his life has been given. Wli, to summarise, when Turgut Pasha first gave service to the Ottoman Sultanate, he was mustaf the Karhili sanjak in Epirus between Prevesa sanjak and inebahtl-Lepanto. Subsequently he was appointed beylerbey Governor General of Trablus Garp. Firstly, Turgut Pasha is here reported to have died, together with the artillery commander Soli Aga, not from a stone fragment cast up from a misfired Ottoman cannon ball, as was stated for example by Balbi da Correggio, 12 nor yet by a stone fragment thrown out from the impact of an Ottoman cannon ball on the fortification wall of St Elmo as related by Gelibolulu Mustafa Ali in his account of the siege translated, nor by an enemy cannon ball as is also related above by Gelibolulu Mustafa Ali, 13 but rather that both Turgut Pasha and Soli Aga were killed as a result of the firing of a repaired Ottoman cannon which, when fired, presumably due to II A statement contradicted by the record ofstone and iron cannon balls fired by the Ottoman artillery and the state of these fortifications at the end of the siege, as Balbi writes that by 27 July, ” These were so ruined that even the oldest veterans were astounded.
Menakib-i Hünerveran : Gelibolulu Mustafa Ali :
Likewise, on 6JanumyRaimond de Beccarie de Pavie, baron Seigneur de Fourquevaux and ambassador of King Charles IX to Spain from towrote concerning the state of the fortifications of Birgu-Borgo that in the event of mudtafa Ottoman attack inthe year after the siege ended, “the Catholic King will send Germans, Spanish and Italians who will dig in on the mountain rif St Elmo the Sciberras promontory, future site of Valletta.
He ordered them to aim lower. Their aim was still too high, so he again ordered them to lower it. Standing as he was with his back to the guns cannons to observe their fire, a s! Clot, Suleimanlhe Magnificent, trans. Saqi Books,p. The cause of Dragut’s death was likewise recorded by S. Tucker, A Global Chronology rif Conjlict: The brief biographical note on Turgut Pasha.
But this seems most unlikely to have been the case, as both Turgut Pasha and Soli Aga gelivolulu expert artillerymen. Gelibolulu Mustafa Ali’s account in his bi. MALTA the turban on Turgut Pasha’s head that received part of the force of the shrapnel and, if the pasha was standing, as Balbi states, facing the target from on top of the ridge between the two trenches, together with Soli Aga, there seems little possibility, given the angles involved, that a stone fragment cast from a cannon ball’s impact in the trench could have struck the turban on the pasha’s head.
A repaired cannon exploding in the battery behind him seems to be much more plausible as the cause of his mortal head injury. Although for obvious reasons the actual cause of death was not officially reported, other accounts were related, as was related by Gelibolulu Mustafa Ali translated above.
Secondly, this brief biographical notice also lends no support to the idea that with his massive head wound Turgut Pasha lingered on from 18 June for a further 5 days before expiring on 23 June. Rather, it seems most probable that Turgut Pasha died on 18 June. In this respect it is noteworthy that Balbi relates that on 18 June, the Grand Master was informed through the arrival in Birgu of a Lombard renegade that “he had seen Dragut laid low, his brains spattered.
There was no chance qf saving his life, the renegade maintained, and if he lied, the Grand Master might have him hanged. There seems therefore little room for giving any credence to the widespread report that Turgut Pasha died on receipt of the news of the fall of St Elmo on 23 June, 19 which Balbi also relates – “This dog had not died until half an hour qfier St Elmo was captured.
He got no consolation, however. The impression of him being kept alive was, it seems reasonable to surmise, simply the rather usual practice to maintain Ottoman troop morale, as, even though the Pasha was dead, he necessarily remained alive for his troops until after the fall of St Elmo, when he 15 Balbipp.
The Post was in an exposed position towards the end of the peninsular, Ibid. Crowley writes, “Two hours rifler St Elmo’s.
Crowley, Empires qf the Sea: Faber and Faber,p. The Pasha was a man who died twice. That he remained conscious and heard iJJc news of its conquest, and only then expired, defies medical science, given the physical injuries he sustained.
The news that the pasha remained alive albeit injured was of course a fabrication which was propagated to maintain the morale of the assaulting Ottoman troops. It is of course today unknown whether some kind of reward was offered to those Ottoman troops who had witnessed Turgut’s death, in order to buy their silence as to the reality of the event.
It is to the credit of the contacts and connections made by the historian Gelibolulu Mustafa Ali, seeker after “the truth of events”, and to his discretion and courage that we have today in his Kunhii’l-Ahbar a faithful account, providing from an Ottoman source the most probable cause of Turgut Pasha’s death and contradicting the official campaign register which stated that he had died after the fall of St Elmo. The conclusion to be drawn is that Tugut Pasha was actually martyred on 18 June 19′” Zilkade Others, again, are aliue although they seem to be dead.
Gelibolulu Mustafa Ali – Brill Reference
How can we tell if a man is dead or if he geliboljlu aliue? Picador,p. In other words, reports are one thing, reality often another. Turkiye Diyanet Vakft Yaymlan, 20 12s. See for example, A. Said International,p. Remember me on this computer. Enter the email address you signed up with and we’ll email you a reset link. Click here to sign up. Help Center Find new research papers in: