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No part of this manual may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, kanual translated in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, without the prior written permission of Schlumberger. Use of this product is governed by the License Agreement. Schlumberger makes no warranties, express, implied, or statutory, with respect to the product described herein and disclaims without limitation any warranties of merchantability or?
Version and Program History Version 4. If you click on the On Context button, the cursor becomes a question mark. Move the question mark to the item for which you want help and click the mouse button. The User Guide will open to the relevant page. About This Document This document contains the information you need to know to run this program.
It is designed to be used both as a hardcopy document and to be accessed online by means of Hypertext. Click on any item in the table of contents to jump directly to the page on which that topic begins. Mouse Buttons These conventions are used to indicate which mouse button to click: After you have jumped to a reference—even if you have paged forward or backward after jumping—you can return to the original jump point by pressing the GoBack button.
These references are also active Hypertext links. When you click on a phrase that appears in blue, underlined Italic type, you jump to the section or document represented by that phrase. To jump to the beginning of the table of contents at any time click on the ToC ToC button. Click on any TOC item to jump directly to the section of the document it represents. The Index button is not connected at this time. The FrameMaker Print Document window appears. You may want to use the UNIX lpq command to check the printing status.
See your system administrator or on-line man pages for information about this command. Although the new user may wish to read this document in its entirety, it has been designed to be accessed in small, self-contained, single-topic segments, as well. You can run the ELANPlus application and produce results—even meaningful results—without the information presented in this document. However, until you understand the underlying concepts, theory, and assumptions of the ELANPlus program, it will remain a mysterious black box.
If you do not understand the theory behind it, the ELANPlus program will sometimes appear to produce inconsistent, irreproducible, illogical results. Fine-tuning parameter values will remain a frustrating hit-or-miss proposition. Singe-well ELANPlus can be run anytime after preliminary data mwnual such as patching, depth matching, environmental correction is complete. Most users think the purpose of the ELANPlus application is solving the socalled inverse problem, in which log measurements, or tools, and response parameters are used together in response equations to compute volumetric results for formation components.
In reality, that aspect of the program is only one side of a three-way relationship among tools, response parameters, and formation component volumes. The relationship is often presented in a triangular diagram, as in Figure 1. In Manuual 1, the t represents the tool vector—all logging instrument data and synthetic curves. The v is the volume vector, the volumes of formation components. Given the data represented by any two corners of the triangle, the ELANPlus program can determine the third.
In the inverse problem, t and R are used to compute v. As stated before, solution of the inverse problem is often considered the main job of the ELANPlus program. The forward problem, also known as log reconstruction, uses R and v to compute t. A log reconstruction problem is computed for each inverse problem, or Solve process. The reconstructed logs are compared against input data to determine the quality of volumetric results from the inverse problem.
Using t and v to compute R is called the gelframe problem. The problem will be solvable in Version 3. Note that the inverse problem solves for formation component volumes only. Other traditional log interpretation program results such as water saturation, matrix grain density, and so on are provided by the Function process. That approach allows the program user to control the de?
Chapters 2—8 explain ELANPlus interpretation model concepts and tell how individual models can be combined for wide ranges of formation types, how the program produces geoframee results, and how to check the quality of results. If reading this section for the? Though some terms may also be in the glossary, most of the material presented here will not be repeated. Equations and Tools Equation and tool will be synonymous in most cases.
The more technically correct term is equations, or better, response equations. The term tool comes from the fact that most response equations obtain their input data from logging tools and often use the same mnemonic as the tool data.
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Also, the response equations and their associated data are used as tools to produce the desired results. Finally, the term tool has historical roots in the program. Generally, equation or response equation will be used when the intent is to focus attention on the structure of the equation.
Tool will be used more conceptually in discussing manal models.
These minerals, rocks, and? Often the primary job of the ELANPlus program is georfame determine the relative quantities or geofraame of mznual formation components that would most likely produce the set of measurements recorded by the logging instruments. Therefore, the terms volumes and formation components, or just components, are often used interchangeably.
Volumes tends to be used in discussion of equations and output curves, where quantity carries more importance. Matrices Matrices are represented by upper case, bold characters, such as R.
They are used primarily in equations to show how the theoretical concepts are related to the working program. Mnemonics will be explained when? A model consists of a set of tools, or equations, a set of formation components, or volumes, and a set of constraints.
Implicitly there are associated curves, response parameters, and other global and model-specific parameters. Abstractly, a model describes program input data and the solution space over which the ELANPlus optimizer can operate the allowable results.
The equations describe the logging data and geofrzme response equations that are available. The formation components describe the minerals, rocks, and?
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The constraints let you set upper and lower limits on the output volumes. They are often used to establish a relationship between one formation component and another or others.
Constraints are a way of supplying the program with local knowledge. Often the term model is used interchangeably with Solve process, because a different Solve process is usually set up for each general set of equations, formation components, and constraints. The results from each speci? The summation indices are used in a unique way in this document.
Geofram a model which, among other formation components, includes the clays illite, kaolinite, and chlorite.
Similarly, Vi represents volume of illite, volume of kaolinite, and volume of chlorite in the expanded summation. The symbol nuf applies to all?
The symbol nxf applies to all? Unless otherwise stated, nfc includes all solids—nonclay and clay alike—and all? However, note that since bound water XBWA is solved for as a dependent variable, nfc does not include it. It is also used to refer to any nonspeci? As stated in the Summation Expressions section, the i, j, k, Units Examples are sometimes used to elucidate a concept. Unfortunately, the use of any speci? In other situations where the units are not supplied and are not obvious from context, assume English units.
Vectors Vectors are represented by a lower case bold letter, such as v. The string xxxx is used to indicate that you are to? Q Assumptions of the ELANPlus Application Most formation evaluation programs impose some sort of interpretation model—assumptions about the depositional environment, clay properties,?
The assumptions implicit in the ELANPlus program are related to borehole pressure, bound water, curve editing, environmental corrections,?
Borehole Pressure Borehole pressure is used in the computation of certain salinity-dependent parameter values. Borehole pressure in psi is assumed to be 0. Bound Water Clays are composed of nanual clay mineral and associated bound water. The goframe of bound water to geofrrame clay is constant for each clay.
Curve Editing—Depth Correction, Depth Matching, Despiking, Patching All input data curves have been properly depth corrected and matched with each other and have been edited to repair spurious effects such as data spikes or gaps. Environmental Corrections All input data curves geograme environmentally manua. That is, they have had the effects of the borehole contents and geometry removed.
One notable exception is that the salinity correction for the nonlinear neutron should not be done, because the salinity manyal can be done properly only when gdoframe volumetric constituents are known, that is, during minimization.
Flushed-Zone and Undisturbed-Zone Relationships Solid formation components exist in equal number and volume in both? If a model includes an undisturbed-zone? For example, if a model includes undisturbed-zone oil UOILit must also contain?
The volume of porosity in the? Fluid formation components exist in one of two annular zones—the? That allows for the concept of?