Home; Inula crithmoides. Inula crithmoides. Summary; Photos; Maps; Habitats; Life Form; Distribution; Conservation Status; Other Accounts; References. Inula crithmoides L., a common halophyte from the coast of Lebanon was evaluated for use in saline agriculture. The plant is traditionally consumed in Lebanon. Learn more about the Golden samphire – with amazing Golden samphire photos and facts on Arkive.

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Published date of profile: More support is needed [ read more ] Nomenclature. Large number of compact branches and sub branches forming a shrub or tree. Common main stem is partially, or sometimes, totally covered by the branches. A plant having fleshy stems or leaves, often adapted to conserve water in an extremely dry habitat xeric habitat. Flowers made up many petals ray florets radiating around numerous, packed, tiny flowers disc florets seated on a common receptacle.

Each flower head consists of a yellow, strap-like spreading, non-overlapping petals ray florets with numerous yellow disc florets at the centre possessing yolk-yellow anthers. The flower is held in a green, cylindrical to semi-spherical involucre.

Ovary situated below the flower parts the calyx, corolla, and androecium. crithkoides

Golden samphire videos, photos and facts – Inula crithmoides | Arkive

In other words, these are attached above the ovary. A simple one-seeded fruit which has an apical structure of radiating fine light bristles called pappus which aid the seed to disperse away by wind.

Fruit are found in collective numbers attached to a common receptacle. A collection of achenes with a bristly pappus forming a soft spherical structure. The radiating achenes are attached to a common receptacle and when mature they detach and get dispersed by wind.

A rooting system where there is the main descending root of a plant having a single dominant large structure from which a network of smaller and long roots emerge.

Basionym or principal synonyms: Inula crithmoides Full list of synonyms: Presl Daisy Sunflower Family. Apiaceae – the Rock Samphire. The resemblance is based crlthmoides the leaves becasue the flowers of the rock samphire are completely different. Upright, vertically straight up well clear off the ground.

Smooth; without any hairs, bristles or other projections. Growing at different positions along the stem axis.

Growing directly from the stem; without a stalk. No prominent venation visible. Long and narrow with parallel margins. Smooth margin without indentations, lobes or any projections.

Ray petals around disc florets: Elongate inflorescence with compound branching forming clusters of flowers. Light Brown Pappus is beige. Numerous achenes with pappus: Beige Referring to the pappi of the collective fruit head.

Aromatic Most of the plant especially the leaves have an aromatic scent. Plant description and characters. Rocky places near the coast, though it can be found a few km inland too. Inula crithmoides is a small or low-growing shrubby plant forming many leafy branches. Although specimens are often less than 1. Only few mature branches are found to sub-branch at the upper parts into much smaller branches.

The stems are glabrous and can turn woody with time. Leaves are numerous and often seen curved upright to take a vertically erect position. They are sessile and arranged alternatively along stem. New leaflets grow in small clusters form the axil of some mature leaves. Each leaf is glabrous, linear-succulent finger-like shape and possess smooth outline.


Some specimens have more flattened but still fleshy leaves with 3 tiny teeth at their tip. Mature leaves measure about 45mm in length and mm in diameter. Leaves have an aromatic-salty taste. Flowers are produced in loose clusters mostly along the upper half of the branch, but the first flowers to develop are always present at the tip of the branch, with new flowers developing progressively downwards along the branch.

Each flower is made up of a green, semi-spherical or rather cylindrical involucre made up of numerous tiny, flap-like phyllaries tiled over each other imbricated. Each phyllary is completely green, pointed at the apex and glabrous. The corolla usually consists betweenbright yellow ray florets or ‘petals’ that are strap-shaped and have 3 teeth tiny teeth at the tip.

The number of petals is quite variable. At the centre of the flower lies the disc florets each about mm in size which have a 5-lobed corolla, from which yolk-yellow stamens fused around a common style protrudes out.

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The style splits in two conspicuous dull-yellow stigmas at the top. Disc-florets develop from the periphery to the centre of the capitulum.

The flower matures in a fruit which initially is enclosed in the involucre, but when ripe, the involucral phyllaries spread out open exposing the numerous ripe achenes seeds on the receptacle. Achenes are 5mm long and consists of a 2mm linear, light-brown seed coveryed with tiny stiff hair and a bristly, light brown, unbeaked pappus. The bristles of the pappus are simple unbranched and about mm long.

Seeds are dispersed to considerable distances by wind. Being a semi- succulent plant, Inula crithmoides grows well in the arid conditions of Summer in Malta and can withstand salt halophyte. As a result it is especially found along many rocky coasts in the Maltese Islands.

Information, uses and other details. Nativity and Distribution Found in almost all coasts lining the mediterrenean and also in Great Britain. Inula and its connection with Helen of Troy Mythology Inula is allegedly connected with Helen of Troy who, it is said, held a bunch of Inula helenium when she was abducted by Paris.

Helen of Troy had a large arm full of these flowers when Paris stole her from her husband Menelaus that started the Trojan War that lasted ten years. When Paris was killed Helen returned to Menelaus and through difficulty they returned to Sparta where they lived happily ever after.

Her tears watered and let to grow the plant Inula helenium. Inula, the Latin classical name for the plant, is considered to be a corruption of the Greek word Helenion which in its Latinised form, Helenium, is also now applied to the same species. There are many fables about the origin of this name. In Lebanon, the young succulent leaves are eaten raw in salads, cooked or used as a potherb. When used as fodder, many of these succulents must be processed or leached in order to compensate for high levels of salt in their tissue.


This plant is a high-Iodine vegetable where Iodine levels ranged between 0. Propagation from seed is done by sowing in spring or autumn in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer. If sufficient seed is available, it is worthwhile trying a sowing in situ in the spring or the autumn.

Inula crithmoidesa common halophyte from the coast of Lebanon, was evaluated for use in saline agriculture. Inula crithmoides offshoots were collected from the inupa and propagated in a controlled environment. Germination and rooting tests under various salinity regimes ranging from 0. The growth of potted plants crithmoiees under 5 levels of salinity for a period of 87 days was only affected by salinity exceeding crtihmoides dS m Yield of plants irrigated with 40 dS m-1 saline water was nearly half that of the no-salt control.

Mean yield value for plants grown at 20 dS m-1 reached At this salinity, crude protein content averaged It is concluded that Inula crithmoides can be a good candidate for use in saline agriculture, provided a selection process is initiated to identify high yielding varieties.

The distribution of I.

Results indicate that abundance and density of I. The relative importance of I. Conclusions drawn from these results justified the suitability of the use of I.

One variation is present in the leaf tips and the other in the flower size and its number of ray florets. The upper part criithmoides the leaves are usually smooth, having an entire outline finger-shaped but some specimens were more flattened and ending with 3 tiny teeth check image INUCR below.

Secondly, flowers of the Maltese specimens tend to be knula small but the plants usually have plentiful inflorescences. Even primary flowers are generally quite small bearing about petals, while on observing photos of flowers of specimens from other parts of Europe Italy Spain and UK flowers are larger with more than 30 ray-florets petals and more disk florets.

Click on the following examples: LMBCR Photo of a flower consisting of bright yellow, peripheral ray florets ‘petals’ and numerous yolk-yellow disk florets at the centre. LMBCR Inuls of composite flower with strap-shaped ‘petals’ ray-florets each having their lnula with 3 minute teeth.

Often flowers show up with unsymmetrical petals where some are shorter from other petals, not evenly spaced, or overlapping each other. Each floret is a tube with a star-shaped opening from which a single style protrudes out. The tip of the style splits in 2 stigmas while around its column there are the 5, fused stamens. LMBCR Another photo showing a flowering branch with plenty of golden flowers in small loose clusters along the length of the branch.

Taken at drithmoides end of August, The flower consists of a cylindrical to semi-spherical inuoa about 6mm long made of several, tiny, flap-like structures called phyllaries.