Pop art is an art movement that emerged in the United Kingdom and the United States during the mid- to lates. One of its aims is to use images of popular as opposed to elitist culture in art, emphasizing the banal or kitschy elements of any culture, most often through the use of irony. In pop art, material is sometimes visually removed from its known context, isolated, or combined with unrelated material. Pop art is widely interpreted as a reaction to the then-dominant ideas of abstract expressionism , as well as an expansion of those ideas.
Pop art and minimalism are considered to be art movements that precede postmodern art , or are some of the earliest examples of postmodern art themselves. Pop art often takes imagery that is currently in use in advertising.
Product labeling and logos figure prominently in the imagery chosen by pop artists, seen in the labels of Campbell's Soup Cans , by Andy Warhol. Even the labeling on the outside of a shipping box containing food items for retail has been used as subject matter in pop art, as demonstrated by Warhol's Campbell's Tomato Juice Box, pictured. The origins of pop art in North America developed differently from Great Britain. They used impersonal, mundane reality, irony , and parody to "defuse" the personal symbolism and " painterly looseness" of abstract expressionism.
By contrast, the origins of pop art in post-War Britain, while employing irony and parody, were more academic. Britain focused on the dynamic and paradoxical imagery of American pop culture as powerful, manipulative symbolic devices that were affecting whole patterns of life, while simultaneously improving the prosperity of a society.
Although both British and American pop art began during the s, Marcel Duchamp and others in Europe like Francis Picabia and Man Ray predate the movement; in addition there were some earlier American proto-pop origins which utilized "as found" cultural objects.
The Independent Group IG , founded in London in , is regarded as the precursor to the pop art movement. Their group discussions centered on pop culture implications from elements such as mass advertising, movies, product design, comic strips, science fiction and technology. At the first Independent Group meeting in , co-founding member, artist and sculptor Eduardo Paolozzi presented a lecture using a series of collages titled Bunk! One of the collages in that presentation was Paolozzi's I was a Rich Man's Plaything , which includes the first use of the word "pop", appearing in a cloud of smoke emerging from a revolver.
According to the son of John McHale , the term "pop art" was first coined by his father in in conversation with Frank Cordell ,  although other sources credit its origin to British critic Lawrence Alloway.
I used the term, and also 'Pop Culture' to refer to the products of the mass media, not to works of art that draw upon popular culture. In any case, sometime between the winter of and the phrase acquired currency in conversation Alloway clarified these terms in , at which time Pop Art had already transited from art schools and small galleries to a major force in the artworld. But its success had not been in England.
Apple and Hockney traveled together to New York during the Royal College's summer break, which is when Apple first made contact with Andy Warhol — both later moved to the United States and Apple became involved with the New York pop art scene.
Although pop art began in the early s, in America it was given its greatest impetus during the s. The term "pop art" was officially introduced in December ; the occasion was a "Symposium on Pop Art" organized by the Museum of Modern Art.
Consequently, American artists had to search deeper for dramatic styles that would distance art from the well-designed and clever commercial materials. By contrast, American artists, bombarded every day with the diversity of mass-produced imagery, produced work that was generally more bold and aggressive. Two important painters in the establishment of America's pop art vocabulary were Jasper Johns and Robert Rauschenberg. His approach was to create art out of ephemeral materials.
By using topical events in the life of everyday America, he gave his work a unique quality. Roy Lichtenstein is of equal importance to American pop art. His work, and its use of parody , probably defines the basic premise of pop art better than any other.
Lichtenstein used oil and Magna paint in his best known works, such as Drowning Girl , which was appropriated from the lead story in DC Comics ' Secret Hearts Drowning Girl is part of the collection of the Museum of Modern Art.
Lichtenstein said, "[abstract expressionists] put things down on the canvas and responded to what they had done, to the color positions and sizes. My style looks completely different, but the nature of putting down lines pretty much is the same; mine just don't come out looking calligraphic, like Pollock's or Kline's.
The paintings of Lichtenstein, like those of Andy Warhol, Tom Wesselmann and others, share a direct attachment to the commonplace image of American popular culture, but also treat the subject in an impersonal manner clearly illustrating the idealization of mass production.
Andy Warhol is probably the most famous figure in pop art. In fact, art critic Arthur Danto once called Warhol "the nearest thing to a philosophical genius the history of art has produced". Donald Factor, the son of Max Factor Jr. The essay was one of the first on what would become known as pop art, though Factor did not use the term.
In the s, Oldenburg, who became associated with the pop art movement, created many happenings , which were performance art -related productions of that time. The name he gave to his own productions was "Ray Gun Theater". This brash, often humorous, approach to art was at great odds with the prevailing sensibility that, by its nature, art dealt with "profound" expressions or ideas.
In December , he rented a store on Manhattan's Lower East Side to house The Store , a month-long installation he had first presented at the Martha Jackson Gallery in New York, stocked with sculptures roughly in the form of consumer goods.
Rosenquist recalled: "at that moment I thought, something in the art world has definitely changed". The show was presented as a typical small supermarket environment, except that everything in it—the produce, canned goods, meat, posters on the wall, etc. By , pop artists started exhibiting in commercial galleries in New York and Los Angeles; for some, it was their first commercial one-man show. The Stable Gallery showed R. Indiana and Warhol in his first New York show.
Considered as a summation of the classical phase of the American pop art period, the exhibit was curated by William Seitz. The artist Christo showed with the group. It was dissolved in Contemporary of American Pop Art—often conceived as its transposition in France—new realism was along with Fluxus and other groups one of the numerous tendencies of the avant-garde in the s.
In Spain, the study of pop art is associated with the "new figurative", which arose from the roots of the crisis of informalism. Eduardo Arroyo could be said to fit within the pop art trend, on account of his interest in the environment, his critique of our media culture which incorporates icons of both mass media communication and the history of painting, and his scorn for nearly all established artistic styles.
Their movement can be characterized as "pop" because of its use of comics and publicity images and its simplification of images and photographic compositions. In the book Almodovar on Almodovar , he is quoted as saying that the s film "Funny Face" was a central inspiration for his work. One pop trademark in Almodovar's films is that he always produces a fake commercial to be inserted into a scene. In Japan, pop art evolved from the nation's prominent avant-garde scene. The use of images of the modern world, copied from magazines in the photomontage-style paintings produced by Harue Koga in the late s and early s, foreshadowed elements of pop art.
He is well known for his advertisements and creating artwork for pop culture icons such as commissions from The Beatles , Marilyn Monroe , and Elizabeth Taylor , among others. Iconic characters from Japanese manga and anime have also become symbols for pop art, such as Speed Racer and Astro Boy. Japanese manga and anime also influenced later pop artists such as Takashi Murakami and his superflat movement.
Italian pop art originated in s culture — the works of the artists Enrico Baj and Mimmo Rotella to be precise, rightly considered the forerunners of this scene. In fact, it was around — that Baj and Rotella abandoned their previous careers which might be generically defined as belonging to a non-representational genre , despite being thoroughly post-Dadaist , to catapult themselves into a new world of images, and the reflections on them, which was springing up all around them.
Rotella's torn posters showed an ever more figurative taste, often explicitly and deliberately referring to the great icons of the times. Baj's compositions were steeped in contemporary kitsch , which turned out to be a "gold mine" of images and the stimulus for an entire generation of artists.
The novelty came from the new visual panorama, both inside "domestic walls" and out-of-doors. Cars, road signs, television, all the "new world", everything can belong to the world of art, which itself is new. In this respect, Italian pop art takes the same ideological path as that of the international scene. The only thing that changes is the iconography and, in some cases, the presence of a more critical attitude toward it.
Even in this case, the prototypes can be traced back to the works of Rotella and Baj, both far from neutral in their relationship with society. In Belgium , pop art was represented to some extent by Paul Van Hoeydonck, whose sculpture Fallen Astronaut was left on the Moon during one of the Apollo missions , as well as by other notable pop artists. Another well-known artist, Roger Raveel , mounted a birdcage with a real live pigeon in one of his paintings.
By the end of the s and early s, pop art references disappeared from the work of some of these artists when they started to adopt a more critical attitude towards America because of the Vietnam War 's increasingly gruesome character. Panamarenko, however, has retained the irony inherent in the pop art movement up to the present day.
Evelyne Axell from Namur was a prolific pop-artist in the period. Axell was one of the first female pop artists, had been mentored by Magritte and her best-known painting is 'Ice Cream' .
Other notable works by Axell can be found in key galleries internationally. While there was no formal pop art movement in the Netherlands , there were a group of artists that spent time in New York during the early years of pop art, and drew inspiration from the international pop art movement. Schippers , and Woody van Amen.
They opposed the Dutch petit bourgeois mentality by creating humorous works with a serious undertone. Russia was a little late to become part of the pop art movement, and some of the artwork that resembles pop art only surfaced around the early s, when Russia was a communist country and bold artistic statements were closely monitored. Russia's own version of pop art was Soviet -themed and was referred to as Sots Art. After , the Communist Party lost its power, and with it came a freedom to express. It might be argued that the Soviet posters made in the s to promote the wealth of the nation were in itself a form of pop art.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Art movement. This article is about the art movement. For other uses, see Pop art disambiguation. Abrams, Inc. Pop Art and the Origins of Post-Modernism. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved The New Yorker. Oxford University Press, Billy Apple: British and American Works London: The Mayor Gallery.