Programming pearls (2nd ed.) Programming pearls (2nd ed.) ACM Press/ Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. New York, NY View colleagues of Jon Bentley . Programming Pearls Second Edition Jon Bentley Programs perform a dazzling .. and Analysis of Computer Algorithms, published by Addison-Wesley in “The first edition of Programming Pearls was one of the most influential books I read early in my career, and many of the insights I first encountered Addison- Wesley Professional, – Computers – pages Epilog to the Second Edition.

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Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. This book provides a guide for both students and experienced programmers about how to design and create programs, and how to think about programming. The book is full of small case studies, real examples, and interesting exercises for bejtley about how to program. This web page contains samples from the whole work for you to investigate. For teachers, the links below lead to some of the central material suitable for classroom use.

Steve McConnell describes the book as “a celebration of design in the small”. Browse this site peagls sample it yourself.

NEW What’s new on this web site? Secod the Oyster Column 2: Algorithms rSketchl Column 4: Writing Correct Programs Sketch Column 5: The Back of the Envelope Column 8: The Product Column Heaps [Sketch] Column An Estimation Quiz Appendix 3: Cost Models for Time and Space Appendix 4: Thu 19 Oct What’s New on the Programming Pearls Web Site November Column 15 is now on the site, complete with a new program for letter-level Markov textand new examples of word frequencieslong repeated stringsand letter-level and word- level Markov text.

August The errata just keeps on growing. If you see errors, please send them in. July Programming Pearls is often used for teaching undergraduates. This page describes how some benhley the topics in the book can be incorporated into college classrooms. March A theme running through the book concerns the Tricks of the Trade. This page describes that topic and contains a Powerpoint Show on the subject. Strings of bentlsy make integers and floating-point numbers. Strings of digits make telephone numbers, and strings of characters make words.

Long strings of characters make web pages, and longer strings yet make books. Extremely long strings represented by the letters A, C, G and T are in geneticists’ databases and deep inside the cells of many readers of this book. They sort them, count them, search them, and analyze them to discern patterns. This column introduces those topics by examining a few classic problems on strings. The Rest of the Column These are the remaining sections in the column.

The code for Column 15 contains implementations of the algorithms.

The Solutions to Column 15 give answers for some of the Problems. This column concentrates on programming techniques, and uses those techniques to build several programs for processing large text files. A few examples of the programs’ output in the text illustrate the structure of English documents. This web site contains some additional fun examples, which may give further insight into the structure of the English language.


The web references describe several web sites devoted to related topics. Wed 18 Oct Words Section Feed such a program a few hundred books, and you have a fine start at a word list for a dictionary.

But what exactly is a word? Problem 1 asks how you might avoid such problems. The for loop then iterates through the set, and writes the words in sorted order. This program is elegant and fairly efficient more on that topic soon. Our next problem is to count the number of times each word occurs in the document.

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Here are the 21 most common words in the King James Bible, sorted in decreasing numeric order and aligned in three columns to save space: Programming Pearls Second Edtikm Jon Bentley the shall they and he be of unto is to I with And his not that a all in for thou Almost eight percent of thewords in the text were the word “the” as opposed to 16 percent of the words in this sentence.

By our definition of word, “and” and “And” have two separate counts. The for statement iterates through the words in sorted order and prints each word first and its count second. On my machine, it takes 7. We can reduce the processing time by building our own hash table, using nodes that contain a pointer to a word, a count of how often the word has been seen, and a pointer to the next node in the table.

Here is the hash table after inserting the strings “in”, “the” addisn-wesley “in”, in the unlikely event that both strings hash to 1: AjtJ We’ll implement the hash table with this C structure: We’ll follow the old lore of using a prime number near that for our hash aecond size, and the popular multiplier of 3 1: The main function initializes every bin to NULLreads the word and increments the count of each, then iterates through the hash table to write the unsorted words and counts: If the word is found, its count is incremented and the function returns.

If the word is not found, the function makes a new node, allocates space and copies the string experienced C programmers would use strdup for the taskand inserts the node at the front of the list.

This C program takes about 2. The complete run time is 3. This little exercise illustrates the two main ways to represent sets of words. Balanced search trees operate on strings as indivisible objects; these structures are used in most implementations of the STL’s sets and maps.

They always keep the elements in sorted order, addisno-wesley they can efficiently perform operations such as finding a predecessor or reporting the elements in order. Hashing, on the other hand, peeks inside the protramming to compute a hash function, and then scatters keys across a big table. It is very fast on the average, but it does not offer the worst-case performance guarantees of balanced trees, or support other operations involving order.

Wed 18 Oct Problems Section Throughout this column we have used the simple definition that words are separated by white space. How could you deal with such commands? Are there any other tasks that you might need to perform? How much memory does it consume compared to Mcllroy’s structure? How much speedup can you achieve by incorporating the special-purpose malloc of Solution 9. When a hash table is large and the hash function scatters the data programmkng, almost every list in the table has only a few elements.


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If either of these conditions is violated, though, the time spent searching down the list can be substantial. When a new string is not found in the seconr table in Section To simulate hashing trouble, set NHASH to 1 and experiment with this and other list strategies, such as appending to the end of the list, or moving the most recently found element to the front of the list.

When we looked at the output of the word bfntley programs in Section How would you print only the M most common words, where M is a constant such as 10 or ? Given a new input string, how would addison-esley search a suffix array to find the longest match in the stored text? How would you build a GUI interface for this task? Our program for finding duplicated strings was very fast for “typical” inputs, but it can progfamming very slow greater than quadratic for some inputs.

Time the program on such an input. Do such inputs ever arise in practice?

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How would you modify the program for finding duplicated strings to find the longest string that occurs more than M times? Given two input texts, find the longest string that occurs in both.

Show how to reduce the number of pointers in the duplication program by pointing only to suffixes that start on word boundaries. What effect does this have on the output produced by benttley program?

Programming Pearls, 2nd Edition

Implement addison-weslej program to generate letter- level Markov text. How would you addison-weley the tools and techniques of Section The program for generating word-level Markov text is at this book’s web site. Try it on some of your documents. How could you use hashing to speed up the Markov program? Shannon’s quote in Section It gives a good addison-wesly to the Markov frequencies, but not the exact form; explain why not.

Implement a program that scans the entire string from scratch to generate each word and thereby uses the true frequencies. How would you seecond the techniques of this column to assemble a word list for a dictionary the problem that Doug Mcllroy faced in Section How would you build a spelling checker without using a dictionary?

How would you build a grammar checker without using rules of grammar? Investigate how techniques related to k-gram analysis are used in applications such as speech recognition and data compression. This C program uses the Standard Library qsort to sort a file of integers. These functions use the constants to set, clear and test the value of a bit: This C code implements the sorting algorithm, using the functions defined in Solution 2.

See Column 12, especially Problem