With integrated cell balancing • Can be parallel and series connected • Bluetooth app available to monitor cell voltage and temperature. Lithium-iron-phosphate (LiFePO4 or LFP) is the safest of the mainstream li-ion battery types. A 12,8V LFP battery therefore consists of 4 cells connected in. The demand for lithium-ion cells was driven by the need for a rechargeable cell to power the growing market for portable electronic equipment in the ‘s.
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The lithium iron phosphate LiFePO 4 batteryalso called LFP battery with “LFP” standing for “lithium ferrophosphate”is a type of rechargeable batteryspecifically a lithium-ion batterywhich uses LiFePO 4 as a cathode material, and a graphitic carbon electrode with a metallic current collector grid as the anode.
The specific capacity of LiFePO 4 is higher than that of the related lithium cobalt oxide LiCoO 2 chemistry, but its energy density is slightly lower due to its low operating voltage. The main problem of LiFePO lifeoo4 is its low electrical conductivity. LiFePO 4 is finding a number of roles in vehicle use, utility scale stationary applications, and backup power.
LiFePO 4 is a natural mineral of the olivine family triphylite.
Its use as a battery electrode which was first described in published literature by John B. Goodenough ‘s research group at the University of Texas in  as a cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries. The chief barrier to commercialization was its intrinsically low electrical conductivity. This problem was overcome by reducing the particle size, coating the LiFePO 4 particles with conductive lifelo4 such as carbon nanotubes  or battsry.
This approach was developed by Michel Armand and his coworkers. MIT introduced a new coating that allows the ions to battrey more easily within the battery.
The “Beltway Battery” utilizes a bypass system that allows the lithium ions to enter and leave the electrodes at a speed great enough to fully charge a battery in under a minute.
URB – LFP, VAh, NON-SMART | Ultralife Corporation
The scientists discovered that by coating lithium iron phosphate particles in a glassy material called lithium pyrophosphateions bypass the channels and move faster than in other batteries.
Rechargeable batteries store and discharge energy as charged atoms ions are moved between two electrodes, the anode and the cathode. Their charge and discharge rate are restricted by the speed with which these ions move.
Such technology could reduce the weight and size of the batteries. A small prototype battery cell has been developed that can fully charge in 10 to 20 seconds, compared with six minutes for standard battery cells.
Negative electrodes anode, on discharge made of petroleum coke were used in early lithium-ion batteries; later types used natural or synthetic graphite. The LiFePO 4 battery uses a lithium-ion-derived chemistry and shares many advantages and disadvantages with other lithium-ion battery chemistries. However, there are significant differences. LFP chemistry offers a longer cycle life than other lithium-ion approaches.
Like nickel-based rechargeable batteries and unlike other lithium ion batteries LiFePO 4 batteries have a very constant discharge voltage. Voltage stays close to 3. This allows the cell to deliver virtually full power until it is discharged, and it can greatly simplify or even eliminate the need for voltage regulation circuitry. Because of the nominal 3. This comes close to the nominal voltage of six-cell lead-acid batteries. Along with the good safety characteristics of LFP batteries, this makes LFP a good potential replacement for lead-acid batteries in applications such as automotive and solar applications, provided the charging systems are adapted not to damage the LFP cells through excessive charging voltages beyond 3.
The LFP cells must be at least balanced initially before the pack is assembled and a protection system also needs to be implemented to ensure no cell can be discharged below a voltage of 2.
The use of phosphates avoids cobalt’s cost and environmental concerns, particularly concerns about cobalt entering the environment through improper disposal,  as well as the potential for the thermal runaway characteristic of cobalt-content rechargeable lithium cells manifesting itself. Better yet, a high current LFP cell which will have a higher discharge rate than a lead acid or LiCoO 2 battery of the same capacity can be used.
LiFePO4 Accus 1.5 – 9.0 Ah
LiFePO 4 cells experience a slower rate of capacity loss aka greater calendar-life than lithium-ion battery chemistries such as LiCoO 2 cobalt or LiMn 2 O 4 manganese spinel lithium-ion polymer batteries LiPo battery or lithium-ion batteries. Compared to other lithium chemistries, LFP experiences much slower degradation when stored in a fully charged state.
This makes LFP a good choice for standby use. One important advantage over other lithium-ion chemistries is thermal and chemical stability, which improves battery safety. The Fe — P — O bond is stronger than the Co — O bond, so that when abused, short-circuited, overheated, etc. This stabilization of the redox energies also helps fast ion migration. As lithium migrates out of the cathode in a LiCoO 2 cell, the CoO 2 undergoes non-linear expansion that affects the structural integrity of the cell.
LiFePO 4 is highly resilient during oxygen loss, which typically results in an exothermic reaction in other lithium cells. As a result, lithium iron phosphate cells are much harder to ignite in the event of mishandling especially during charge although any fully charged battery can only dissipate overcharge energy as heat.
Therefore, failure of the battery through misuse is still possible. It is commonly accepted that LiFePO 4 battery does not decompose at high temperatures. Higher discharge rates needed for acceleration, lower weight and longer life makes this battery type ideal for bicycles and electric cars. Single “” AA battery —sized LFP cells are now used in some solar-powered path lights instead of 1. The increased tolerance to modest overcharging compared to other Li cell types means that LiFePO 4 could be connected to photovoltaic cells without complex circuitry.
A single LFP cell also alleviates corrosion, condensation and dirt issues associated with battery holder and cell-to-cell contacts — such poor connections often especially plague outdoor systems using multiple removable NiMH cells. More sophisticated LFP solar charged passive infrared security lamps are also emerging LiFePO 4 -powered solar lamps are visibly brighter than ubiquitous outdoor solar lights, and performance overall is considered more reliable.
Many home EV conversions use the large format versions as the car’s traction pack.
With the efficient power-to-weight ratios, high safety features and the chemistry’s resistance to thermal runaway, there are few barriers for use by amateur home “makers”. Motorhomes are often converted to lithium iron phosphate because of the high draw. Some electronic cigarettes use these types of brochurss.
Lithium battery 12,8V & 25,6V Smart
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