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He is in a tradition of Fulani jihad leaders who revolutionized the states of West Africa at the time of colonialism. The village of Keur Maba Diakhou near Kaolack is named for him. Under governor Faidherbe French forces had carried out a scorched-earth policy against resistance to their expansion in the Senegambiawith villages razed and populations removed after each victory. While he eventually succeeded in diakohu the dynasty of Saloumhis movement never succeeded in Sineand much of Serer territory remained animist or Christian into the 20th century.
There is much to suggest that Sine resistance was as much nationalist as religious, with Muslims and animists fighting on both sides of these struggles. Later at KaolackMaba and Lat Dior were checked by a combined force of French under Pinet-Laprade of cavalry and colonial infantry, allied with infantry and cavalry from daikhou states of WaaloNdiambour and Ndiander. In unifying with other Muslim forces, West African Jihad states aimed to end the reign of small regional kingships who kept the area in a constant state of war, and the farming and artisanal classes in slave conditions.
While his conversion may have been for reasons more political than spiritual, Lat Dior became a powerful ally even in exile, leading his forces alongside those of Sine. Governor Pinet-Laprade had little choice but to accede to Lat Dior, confirming him as the French chef de canton.
Bythe Serer had re-instated their traditional monarchy, which was soon to be supplanted by the French [ bw — discuss ].
L’Ucad revisite la vie et l’oeuvre de Maba Diakhou Bâ –
As an ethnic group they are bound together by the Fula language, culture, history, their religious affiliation and their efforts to spread Islam in Sahel region and the West Africa. A significant proportion of the Fula — a third, or an diakhiu 7 to 8 million — are pastoral people, the majority of the Fula ethnic group consisted of semi-sedentary people, as well as sedentary settled farmers, artisans, merchants and nobility.
Spread over many countries, they are mainly in West Africa and northern parts of Central Africa. Many Fulbe was also taken to the New World during 16th to 19th century Atlantic Slave Trade and they were largely captured from the Senegal and Guinea with a significant percentage also taken from Mali and Cameroon.
Fulani in English is borrowed from the Hausa term, Fula, from Manding languages, is also used in English, and sometimes spelled Fulah or Fullah.
Maba Diakhou Bâ – WikiVisually
In Portuguese, the terms Fula or Futafula are used, the terms Fallata Fallatah or Fellata are diakhku Kanuri origins, and are diakhoi the ethnonyms by which Fulani people are identified by in Sudan. Alongside, many speak other languages of the countries they inhabit. In this area, Fulfulde is the lingua franca. Further east of this area, Fulani communities become predominantly nomadic, the Fulani People occupy a vast geographical expanse located roughly in a dizkhou East-West band immediately south diakou the Sahara, and just north of the coastal rain forest and swamps.
Kaolack — Kaolack is a town ofpeople on the north bank of the Saloum River and the N1 road in Senegal. It is the capital of the Kaolack Region, which borders The Gambia to the south, Kaolack is an important regional diiakhou town and is Senegals main peanut trading and processing center. Kaolack is situated on the Saloum River about kilometers from its diakhok and it is the successor city to Kahone, historic capital of the kingdom of Saloum.
Kahone, originally a place marked by a tree on the right bank of the Saloum River facing the island of Kouyong. In the 17th and 18th centuries it consisted of a number of distinct neighborhoods separated by open fields, one of these wards, Kaolack, was founded by two Sereer princesses from Baol.
Another, Maka Kahone, was inhabited by Muslims and administered by clerics, otherwise, the population of the town practiced traditional religion and court ceremonies centered on the river bank, Kouyong Island, and various monumental baobab trees.
French interests in the Saloum River increased in the early 19th century as legitimate articles of trade were sought to trade in slaves. By mid-century peanut production had been introduced to the kingdom of Saloum and, with the permission of its king, Kaolack was more favorably placed for shipping than Kahone.
The French laid out a first grid of lots inin what would become the city center, the construction of a rail spur from the port to the Dakar-Niger line in caused the town to boom as a peanut processing and export center.
Its population grew rapidly, rising from 5, in to 44, inthe Tijaniyyah of Madina Baye is an international institution with disciples in many cities, including Kano, Nigeria, and Chicago, Illinois.
He created the Senegalese Tirailleurs when he was governor of Senegal, Faidherbe was born into a lower-middle-class family in Lille. From to he served in Algeria, then for one year in Guadeloupe, in he was transferred to Senegal as sub-director of engineers, and in was promoted chef de bataillon and appointed governor of the colony on December He held this post with one interval until July The work he accomplished in French West Africa constitutes his most enduring legacy, at that time France possessed in Senegal little else than the town of Saint-Louis and a strip of coast.
Explorers had, however, made known the riches and possibilities of the Niger regions and he even dreamed of creating a French African empire stretching from Senegal to the Red Sea. French military forces had previously avoided conflicts with the most powerful states in the area, the Toucouleur empire along the Niger River, and the Cayor in the south. To accomplish even the first part of his design, he had very inadequate resources, especially in view of the opposition from El Hadj Umar Tall, the Muslim ruler of the countries of the middle Niger.
By advancing the French outposts on the upper Senegal, and particularly by breaking Umar Talls siege of Medina Fort, striking an advantageous treaty with Umar inFaidherbe brought the French possessions into touch with the Niger. After his victory, he gave the order for Fatick and its villages to be burned to the ground. The French government in Paris criticised him for undertaking a campaign without their authority.
To answer his critics, Faidherbe claimed that he only occupied areas that belonged to France sincescholars like Martin A. Kelin notes that, Faidherbe was merely playing with words and was making political decisions in Senegal without any authority whatsoever. Islam — Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion which professes that there is only one and incomparable God and that Muhammad is the last messenger of God.
It is the worlds second-largest religion and the major religion in the world, with over 1. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful, and unique, and He has guided mankind through revealed scriptures, natural signs, and a line of prophets sealed by Muhammad. The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the word of God. Muslims believe that Islam is the original, complete and universal version of a faith that was revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses.
As for the Quran, Muslims consider it to be the unaltered, certain religious rites and customs are observed by the Muslims in their family and social life, while social responsibilities to parents, relatives, and neighbors have also been defined. Besides, the Quran and the sunnah of Muhammad prescribe a comprehensive body of moral guidelines for Muslims to be followed in their personal, social, political, Islam began in the early 7th century.
Originating in Mecca, it spread in the Arabian Peninsula. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates and empires, traders, most Muslims are of one of two denominations, Sunni or Shia. Converts and immigrant communities are found in almost every part of the world, Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root s-l-m which forms a large class of words mostly relating to concepts of wholeness, submission, safeness and peace. Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the verb form.
The word sometimes has connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as a state, Whomsoever God desires to guide. This term has fallen out of use and is said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims religion. The capital of the federation was Dakar, the federation existed from until Until after the Second World War almost all the Africans living in the colonies of France were not citizens of France, rather, they were French Subjects, lacking rights before the law, property ownership rights, rights to travel, dissent, or vote.
The Four Communes of Senegal were entitled to elect a Deputy to represent them in the French Parliament in the years —, —, inthe first African, Blaise Diagne, was elected as the Deputy for Senegal in the French Parliament.
InDiagne pushed through the National Assembly a law granting citizenship to all residents of the so-called Four Communes. In return, he had promised to help millions of Africans to fight in World War I. The first Governor General of Senegal was named inand inGabon would later become the seat of its own federation French Equatorial Africa, which was to border its western neighbor on the modern boundary between Niger and Chad.
While the latter fell to Free France already after the Battle of Gabon in Novemberfollowing World War II, the French government began a process of extending limited political rights in its colonies.
In the French Provisional Government allocated ten seats to French West Africa in the new Constituent Assembly called to write a new French Constitution, of these five would be elected by citizens and five by African subjects. The elections brought to prominence a new generation of French-educated Africans and they were all re-elected to the 2nd Constituent Assembly on 2 June The French Empire was renamed the French Union on 27 Octoberin late under this new constitution each territory was for the first time able elect local representatives, albeit on a limited franchise, to newly established General Councils.
These elected bodies had only limited powers, although they did approve local budgets. The Loi Cadre of 23 June brought universal suffrage to elections held after that date in all French African colonies, the first elections under universal suffrage in French West Africa were the municipal elections of late On 31 Marchunder universal suffrage, territorial Assembly elections were held in each of the eight colonies, the leaders of the winning parties were appointed to the newly instituted positions of Vice-Presidents of the respective Governing Councils — French Colonial Governors remained as Presidents.
The Constitution of the French Fifth Republic of again changed the structure of the colonies from the French Union to the French Community, each territory was to become a Protectorate, with the consultative assembly named a National Assembly. Serer people — The Serer people are a West African ethnoreligious group. They have had a sedentary settled culture and have known for their farming expertise.
In the 20th century, most of them converted to Islam, the Serer society, like other ethnic groups in Senegal, has had social stratification featuring endogamous castes and slaves. The Serer people are found in contemporary Senegal, particularly in the west-central part of the country.
Each group speaks Serer or a Cangin language, Serer is the standard English spelling. Seereer or Sereer reflects the Serer pronunciation of the name and are used by Senegalese Serer historians or scholars.
The meaning of the word Serer is uncertain, issa Laye Thiaw views it as possibly pre-Islamic and suggests four possible derivations,1. From the Serer Wolof word reer meaning misplaced, i. From mabaa Arabic word seereer meaning sahir magician or one who practices magic, from a Pulaar word, meaning separation, divorce, or break, again referring to refusing Islam. Professor Cheikh Anta Diop citing the work of the 19th century French archeologist and egyptologist – Paul Pierret, Diop went on to write, That would be consistent with their present religious position, they are one bz the rare Senegalese populations who still reject Islam.
Their route is marked by the stones found at about the same latitude from Ethiopia all the way to the Sine-Salum. Over generations these people, possibly Pulaar speaking herders originally, migrated through Wolof areas and entered the Siin and this lengthy period of Wolof-Serer contact has left us unsure of the origins of shared terminology, institutions, political structures, and practices.
L’Ucad revisite la vie et l’oeuvre de Maba Diakhou Bâ
The actual Sereer ethnic group is a msba of the two groups, and this may explain their complex bilinear kinship system and their own oral traditions recite legends on they being part of, or related to the Toucouleur people in the Senegal River valley area. Cham Diakohu started his schooling just before his 12th birthday and he attended the St. Having completed his first key stage, he proceeded to St. Having passed his Standard Four Examination, he progressed to St.
L Drammeh, Cham Joof was a passionate football player. Cham Joof is termed the doyen of scouting in the Gambia and he grew up from the Wolf Cub Scout and served the movement from to when he retired as the President of the Gambia National Scout Council. Cham Joof wrote extensively about the history of Scouting in the Gambia, in he was appointed leader of the Gambian Contingent of Boys Scout travelling to Mali.
Byhis term as Councillor came to an end. This became the ground for his diahkou. Following a decisive victory in the Battle mabq Segou on March 10, a year later he left its management to his son Ahmadu Tall to move against Hamdullahi, the capital of the Fula diakhoh of Duakhou. His nephew Tidiani Tall succeeded him and installed the capital of the Toucouleur Empire at Bandiagara, at Segou, the son Ahmadu Tall continued to reign, successfully suppressing the attempts of several neighboring cities to break away.
Tivaouane was part of the Wolof kingdom of Cayor, and was at one time its capital and it was first described to Europeans in the 15th century by Venitian explorer Luigi Bz. Each week, followers come to visit the tombs of religious leaders, visitors flock each year to fiakhou the birth of the prophet Muhammad in a festival called the Maouloud. The influence of the Muslim brotherhoods of Senegal helps to explain the dramatic growth of the city. The nearest small towns are Yendam, Keur Massamba Daguene, Selko, Ndiagane, between the censue of andTivaouane grew from 27, to 38, inhabitants.
Inaccording to estimates, the population has grown to 39, Wolofs are the largest ethnic group in the area, Tivaouane is in an agricultural region, at the heart of the bassin arachidier of Arachide oil production.
Catering to religious gatherings and celebrations also plays a role in the economy.